The utility of bioimpedance cardiography in assessing the influence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome on cardiac function
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is a breathing disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep. Measuring cardiac function in OSAHS patients may provide information to help delineate not only chronic effects of autonomic imbalance and ventricular loading in the diseases state, but also possible beneficial effects of clinical treatments. Objectives (Study 1): The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of select cardiac variables when monitoring a simulated sleep apnea event using a new improved bioimpedance cardiography system. Methods: Fifteen apparently healthy males were tested on three different days in a protocol requiring their performance of two 15 sec and two 30 sec forced and sustained inspiratory efforts against a closed epiglottis (Müeller Maneuver-MM). Results: Changes in cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), myocardial contractility index (MCI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were similar during 15 sec and 30 sec MM in all three days. During 30 sec MM, these changes in cardiac function were pronounced in comparison to the minimal variations observed for the 15 sec MM challenge test. Objectives (Study 2): The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiac responses to negative intrathoracic pressure in OSAHS patients with and without hypertension versus healthy subjects. Methods: Two groups of 10 OSAHS patients, one without HTN and one with HTN were compared with a control group. Each subject underwent two 30 sec (MM) as previously described. Results: During MM, there were similar changes in SV, HR and SVR in all three groups. CO was lower during MM in controls compared to OSAHS groups, whereas MCI decreased during MM in both controls and OSAHS+HTN groups (-7.5% and -1.7%, respectively) compared with an increase in OSAHS group (11.8%). During a Post-MM, both OSAHS groups showed return of cardiac responses toward their pre-MM baseline within 30 sec. Conclusions: The new bioimpedance cardiograph evaluated in this study was found to be reliable for measuring acute changes in cardiac responses to this breathing challenge test. OSAHS may cause acute changes in selected cardiac parameters during and immediately after a breathing challenge test.
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