Continuum Sensitivity Analysis using Boundary Velocity Formulation for Shape Derivatives
Kulkarni, Mandar D.
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The method of Continuum Sensitivity Analysis (CSA) with Spatial Gradient Reconstruction (SGR) is presented for calculating the sensitivity of fluid, structural, and coupled fluid-structure (aeroelastic) response with respect to shape design parameters. One of the novelties of this work is the derivation of local CSA with SGR for obtaining flow derivatives using finite volume formulation and its nonintrusive implementation (i.e. without accessing the analysis source code). Examples of a NACA0012 airfoil and a lid-driven cavity highlight the effect of the accuracy of the sensitivity boundary conditions on the flow derivatives. It is shown that the spatial gradients of flow velocities, calculated using SGR, contribute significantly to the sensitivity transpiration boundary condition and affect the accuracy of flow derivatives. The effect of using an inconsistent flow solution and Jacobian matrix during the nonintrusive sensitivity analysis is also studied. Another novel contribution is derivation of a hybrid adjoint formulation of CSA, which enables efficient calculation of design derivatives of a few performance functions with respect to many design variables. This method is demonstrated with applications to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structural problems. The hybrid adjoint CSA method computes the same values for shape derivatives as direct CSA. Therefore accuracy and convergence properties are the same as for the direct local CSA. Finally, we demonstrate implementation of CSA for computing aeroelastic response shape derivatives. We derive the sensitivity equations for the structural and fluid systems, identify the sources of the coupling between the structural and fluid derivatives, and implement CSA nonintrusively to obtain the aeroelastic response derivatives. Particularly for the example of a flexible airfoil, the interface that separates the fluid and structural domains is chosen to be flexible. This leads to coupling terms in the sensitivity analysis which are highlighted. The integration of the geometric sensitivity with the aeroelastic response for obtaining shape derivatives using CSA is demonstrated.
- Doctoral Dissertations