Appling Machine and Statistical Learning Techniques to Intelligent Transport Systems: Bottleneck Identification and Prediction, Dynamic Travel Time Prediction, Driver Run-Stop Behavior Modeling, and Autonomous Vehicle Control at Intersections
Elhenawy, Mohammed Mamdouh Zakaria
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In this dissertation, new algorithms that address three traffic problems of major importance are developed. First automatic identification and prediction algorithms are developed to identify and predict the occurrence of traffic congestion. The identification algorithms concoct a model to identify speed thresholds by exploiting historical spatiotemporal speed matrices. We employ the speed model to define a cutoff speed separating free-flow from congested traffic. We further enhance our algorithm by utilizing weather and visibility data. To our knowledge, we are the first to include weather and visibility variables in formulating an automatic congestion identification model. We also approach the congestion prediction problem by adopting an algorithm which employs Adaptive Boosting machine learning classifiers again something novel that has not been done previously. The algorithm is promising where it resulted in a true positive rate slightly higher than 0.99 and false positive rate less than 0.001. We next address the issue of travel time modeling. We propose algorithms to model travel time using various machine learning and statistical learning techniques. We obtain travel time models by employing the historical spatiotemporal speed matrices in conjunction with our algorithms. The algorithms yield pertinent information regarding travel time reliability and prediction of travel times. Our proposed algorithms give better predictions compared to the state of practice algorithms. Finally we consider driver safety at signalized intersections and uncontrolled intersections in a connected vehicles environment. For signalized intersections, we exploit datasets collected from four controlled experiments to model the stop-run behavior of the driver at the onset of the yellow indicator for various roadway surface conditions and multiple vehicle types. We further propose a new variable (predictor) related to driver aggressiveness which we estimate by monitoring how drivers respond to yellow indications. The performance of the stop-run models shows improvements after adding the new aggressiveness predictor. The proposed models are practical and easy to implement in advanced driver assistance systems. For uncontrolled intersections, we present a game theory based algorithm that models the intersection as a chicken game to solve the conflicts between vehicles crossing the intersection. The simulation results show a 49% saving in travel time on average relative to a stop control when the vehicles obey the Nash equilibrium of the game.
- Doctoral Dissertations