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dc.contributor.authorCecere, Thomas E.en
dc.contributor.authorTodd, S. Michelleen
dc.contributor.authorLeRoith, Tanyaen
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-10T21:28:56Zen
dc.date.available2017-01-10T21:28:56Zen
dc.date.issued2012-05-01en
dc.identifier.citationCecere, T.E.; Todd, S.M.; LeRoith, T. Regulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it? Viruses 2012, 4, 833-846.en
dc.identifier.issn1999-4915en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/74224en
dc.description.abstractRegulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of T cells that are responsible for maintaining peripheral immune tolerance and homeostasis. The hallmark of Tregs is the expression of the forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor. Natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) are a distinct population of T cells that express CD4 and FoxP3. nTregs develop in the thymus and function in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. Other CD4+, CD4-CD8-, and CD8+CD28- T cells can be induced to acquire regulatory function by antigenic stimulation, depending on the cytokine milieu. Inducible (or adaptive) Tregs frequently express high levels of the interleukin 2 receptor (CD25). Atypical Tregs express FoxP3 and CD4 but have no surface expression of CD25. Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) produce IL-10, while T helper 3 cells (Th3) produce TGF-β. The function of inducible Tregs is presumably to maintain immune homeostasis, especially in the context of chronic inflammation or infection. Induction of Tregs in coronaviral infections protects against the more severe forms of the disease attributable to the host response. However, arteriviruses have exploited these T cell subsets as a means to dampen the immune response allowing for viral persistence. Treg induction or activation in the pathogenesis of disease has been described in both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus, and mouse hepatitis virus. This review discusses the development and biology of regulatory T cells in the context of arteriviral and coronaviral infection.en
dc.format.extent833 - 846 (14) page(s)en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherMDPIen
dc.relation.urihttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000305801700010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=930d57c9ac61a043676db62af60056c1en
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectVirologyen
dc.subjectVIROLOGYen
dc.subjectregulatory T cellen
dc.subjectarterivirusen
dc.subjectporcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virusen
dc.subjectlactate dehydrogenase-elevating virusen
dc.subjectcoronavirusen
dc.subjectRESPIRATORY-SYNDROME-VIRUSen
dc.subjectDEHYDROGENASE-ELEVATING VIRUSen
dc.subjectCENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEMen
dc.subjectINDUCED ACUTE ENCEPHALITISen
dc.subjectANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLSen
dc.subjectIMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUSen
dc.subjectDELAYED-HYPERSENSITIVITYen
dc.subjectACTIVATED MACROPHAGESen
dc.subjectINTRANASAL DELIVERYen
dc.subjectCYTOKINE PRODUCTIONen
dc.titleRegulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it?en
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.typeReviewen
dc.description.versionPublished (Publication status)en
dc.title.serialVirusesen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3390/v4050833en
dc.identifier.volume4en
dc.identifier.issue5en
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Techen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Veterinary Medicineen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Veterinary Medicine/Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiologyen


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International