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dc.contributor.authorCecere, Thomas E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTodd, S. Michelleen_US
dc.contributor.authorLeRoith, Tanyaen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-10T21:28:56Z
dc.date.available2017-01-10T21:28:56Z
dc.date.issued2012-05-01en_US
dc.identifier.citationCecere, T.E.; Todd, S.M.; LeRoith, T. Regulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it? Viruses 2012, 4, 833-846.
dc.identifier.issn1999-4915en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/74224
dc.description.abstractRegulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of T cells that are responsible for maintaining peripheral immune tolerance and homeostasis. The hallmark of Tregs is the expression of the forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor. Natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) are a distinct population of T cells that express CD4 and FoxP3. nTregs develop in the thymus and function in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. Other CD4+, CD4-CD8-, and CD8+CD28- T cells can be induced to acquire regulatory function by antigenic stimulation, depending on the cytokine milieu. Inducible (or adaptive) Tregs frequently express high levels of the interleukin 2 receptor (CD25). Atypical Tregs express FoxP3 and CD4 but have no surface expression of CD25. Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) produce IL-10, while T helper 3 cells (Th3) produce TGF-β. The function of inducible Tregs is presumably to maintain immune homeostasis, especially in the context of chronic inflammation or infection. Induction of Tregs in coronaviral infections protects against the more severe forms of the disease attributable to the host response. However, arteriviruses have exploited these T cell subsets as a means to dampen the immune response allowing for viral persistence. Treg induction or activation in the pathogenesis of disease has been described in both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus, and mouse hepatitis virus. This review discusses the development and biology of regulatory T cells in the context of arteriviral and coronaviral infection.
dc.format.extent833 - 846 (14) page(s)en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.relation.urihttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000305801700010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=930d57c9ac61a043676db62af60056c1en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectVirologyen_US
dc.subjectVIROLOGYen_US
dc.subjectregulatory T cellen_US
dc.subjectarterivirusen_US
dc.subjectporcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virusen_US
dc.subjectlactate dehydrogenase-elevating virusen_US
dc.subjectcoronavirusen_US
dc.subjectRESPIRATORY-SYNDROME-VIRUSen_US
dc.subjectDEHYDROGENASE-ELEVATING VIRUSen_US
dc.subjectCENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEMen_US
dc.subjectINDUCED ACUTE ENCEPHALITISen_US
dc.subjectANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLSen_US
dc.subjectIMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUSen_US
dc.subjectDELAYED-HYPERSENSITIVITYen_US
dc.subjectACTIVATED MACROPHAGESen_US
dc.subjectINTRANASAL DELIVERYen_US
dc.subjectCYTOKINE PRODUCTIONen_US
dc.titleRegulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it?en_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden_US
dc.typeReviewen_US
dc.description.versionPublished (Publication status)en_US
dc.title.serialViruses
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3390/v4050833
dc.identifier.volume4en_US
dc.identifier.issue5en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeText
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Veterinary Medicine
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Veterinary Medicine/Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)