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dc.contributor.authorZhang, H.en
dc.contributor.authorXiao, S.en
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Y.en
dc.contributor.authorYuan, X.en
dc.contributor.authorWan, B.en
dc.contributor.authorMuscente, A. D.en
dc.contributor.authorShao, T.en
dc.contributor.authorGong, H.en
dc.contributor.authorCao, G.en
dc.coverage.spatialEnglanden
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-14T04:02:23Zen
dc.date.available2017-01-14T04:02:23Zen
dc.date.issued2015-11-26en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/74307en
dc.description.abstractMorphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.en
dc.format.extent16521 - ? page(s)en
dc.languageengen
dc.relation.urihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610151en
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectAnimalsen
dc.subjectExtinction, Biologicalen
dc.subjectFossilsen
dc.subjectGangliaen
dc.subjectGenetic Speciationen
dc.subjectMusclesen
dc.subjectNematodaen
dc.subjectPhylogenyen
dc.titleArmored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.en
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.description.versionPublished online (Publication status)en
dc.contributor.departmentBiological Systems Engineeringen
dc.contributor.departmentGeosciencesen
dc.title.serialSci Repen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/srep16521en
dc.identifier.volume5en
dc.identifier.eissn2045-2322en
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Techen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/All T&R Facultyen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineeringen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineering/Biomedical Engineering and Mechanicsen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineering/COE T&R Facultyen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Faculty of Health Sciencesen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Scienceen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Science/COS T&R Facultyen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Science/Geosciencesen


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