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dc.contributor.authorYang, Wanen_US
dc.contributor.authorElankumaran, Subbiahen_US
dc.contributor.authorMarr, Linsey C.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-05T01:17:27Z
dc.date.available2017-02-05T01:17:27Z
dc.date.issued2012-10-03en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/74934
dc.description.abstractHumidity has been associated with influenza’s seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza’s transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV) during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH) ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ,50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (,100% RH) with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (,50% RH) with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza’s seasonality in different regions.
dc.format.extent? - ? (8) page(s)en_US
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.publisherPLOSen_US
dc.relation.urihttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000309454000084&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=930d57c9ac61a043676db62af60056c1en_US
dc.subjectMultidisciplinary Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectScience & Technology - Other Topicsen_US
dc.subjectMULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCESen_US
dc.subjectVIRUSen_US
dc.subjectSURVIVALen_US
dc.subjectTRANSMISSIONen_US
dc.subjectINFECTIVITYen_US
dc.subjectTEMPERATUREen_US
dc.subjectPATHOGENSen_US
dc.subjectBRAZILen_US
dc.titleRelationship between Humidity and Influenza A Viability in Droplets and Implications for Influenza's Seasonalityen_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.description.versionPublished (Publication status)en_US
dc.title.serialPLOS ONEen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046789
dc.identifier.volume7en_US
dc.identifier.issue10en_US
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/All T&R Faculty
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineering
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineering/Civil & Environmental Engineering
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Engineering/COE T&R Faculty


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