Anti-inflammatory Effects and Biodistribution of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Hirst, Suzanne Marie
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Cerium oxide nanoparticles have the unique ability to accept and donate electrons, making them powerful antioxidants. Their redox nature is due to oxygen defects in the lattice structure, which are more abundant at the nanoscale. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are pro-oxidants whose presence is increased during periods of inflammation in the body. ROS damage tissues and cellular function by stripping electrons from proteins, lipids, and DNA. We investigated the ability of nanoceria to quench ROS in vitro and in vivo, and examined the biodistribution and biocompatibility of nanoceria in murine models. Nanoceria was internalized in vitro by macrophages, is non-toxic at the concentrations we investigated, and proteins, mRNA, and oxidative markers of ROS were abated with nanoceria pretreatment in immune stimulated cells as measured by western blot, real time RT PCR, and Greiss assay respectively. In vivo, nanoceria was deposited in the spleen and liver, with trace amounts in the lungs and kidneys as determined by ICP-MS. Using IVIS in vivo imaging, it appeared that nanoceria deposition occurred in lymph tissue. Histology grades show no overt pathology associated with nanoceria deposition, although white blood cell (WBC) counts were generally elevated with nanoceria treatment. Nanoceria suspect particles were seen in lysosomes from kidney samples of IV injected mice in HRTEM images. Lastly, IV nanoceria treatment appears to reduce markers of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that nanoceria treatment has the potential to reduce oxidative stress.
- Masters Theses