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The Pharmacokinetics of Firocoxib after Multiple Oral Doses to Neonatal Foals
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The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of firocoxib in healthy neonatal foals. Foals are more sensitive to the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, (NSAIDs), particularly due to immature renal clearance mechanisms and ulcerogenic effects on gastric mucosa. Firocoxib, a novel second generation NSAID, is reported to have reduced side effects due to its COX-2 selectivity. The pharmacokinetic profile of firocoxib in neonates has not been established, making reliable dosing difficult. We hypothesized that firocoxib given per os at the labeled dose to neonatal foals would be absorbed and not be associated with clinically significant adverse events. Seven healthy American Quarter Horse foals of mixed gender were administered 0.1mg/kg firocoxib orally q24h for nine consecutive days, commencing at 36h of age. Blood samples were collected for firocoxib analysis using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection at 0 (dose #1 only), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after doses #1, 5 and 9. For all other doses (2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8) blood was collected immediately prior to the next dose (24 hour trough). Elimination samples (36, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours) were collected after dose #9. Safety was assessed via physical examinations, changes in body weight, gastroscopy, complete blood count, serum biochemistry and urinalysis. Firocoxib was rapidly absorbed following oral administration with minimal accumulation after repeat dosing. After the initial dose, an average peak serum concentration (Cmax) of 89.50 ° 53.36 ng/mL (mean ° SD) was achieved (Tmax) in 0.54 ° 0.65 hours. Steady state was obtained after approximately 4 doses and the average maximum concentration (Cavg) in serum was 39.1 ° 8.4 ng/mL. After the final dose, the mean terminal half-life (TÂ½?») was 10.46 ° 4.97 hours. Firocoxib was not detected in plasma 72 hours after the final dose (<2ng/mL). Bioavailability could not be determined as currently, there is no accompanying intravenous dose of firocoxib for this age group to permit the calculation. No significant abnormalities were noted on blood work, urinalysis or gastroscopy. This study demonstrated that firocoxib is absorbed after oral administration in neonatal foals with no observable adverse effects after multiple doses.
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