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dc.contributor.authorKuhn, William Roberten_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-04T19:50:18Z
dc.date.available2017-04-04T19:50:18Z
dc.date.issued2010-12-03en_US
dc.date.submitted2010-12-16en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-12162010-130029en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/76916
dc.description.abstractThe bluegrass billbug (Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal) and hunting billbug (Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden) have become important pests of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) grown in Virginia, causing 40 - 100% stand losses according to a 2005 survey of over 324 ha (800 ac) of orchardgrass. Their sheltered feeding habits combined with a lack of labeled insecticides for orchardgrass make billbug control extremely difficult for this crop. Over two seasons, orchardgrass fields were surveyed for paired feeding holes caused by feeding of the billbug spring adult. Simultaneously, barrier pitfall traps, a standard method for determining the presence of billbugs in orchardgrass, were used to trap billbug adults in the fields. A comparison of these methods using a Wilcoxon sign-ranked test found no significant differences in the time when paired feeding holes were first observed in fields and when billbug adults were first trapped, showing that the methods are equally satisfactory for determining the presence of billbugs in orchardgrass. In addition, temperature data from SkyBit E-Weather® service, which are currently used to alert growers and other interested parties of pertinent billbug activity in orchardgrass, was compared to data from a field-based weather data logger over the two seasons. A comparison of these data showed high coefficients of correlation, indicating a close relationship between these two degree-day collection methods. Therefore, the SkyBit system can continue to be used for the alert system. A field-border application of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain F52 (Met-52), an entomopathogenic fungus, was evaluated against billbug adults as they enter orchardgrass fields in the spring. Randomized pairs of treated and untreated plots were placed along the edge of an orchardgrass field in studies over two seasons. Plots were monitored for billbug adults using barrier pitfall traps, and billbug adults were checked for Met-52 infection. The Met-52 proved unsatisfactory for controlling billbugs in this study. A field efficacy trial was used to evaluate several insecticides and Met-52 against billbug adults in orchardgrass over two seasons. A randomized complete block design, four insecticide treatments and an untreated control were used in each of two trials. Samples from each treatment plot were dissected and checked for billbug life stages and for injury to orchardgrass plants. In one trial, plants in the Sevin XLR Plus® treatment were found to have a significantly higher percentage of injury to the crowns than all other treatments except Mustang Max. No other significant differences were seen in this study.
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectSphenophorus venatus vestitusen_US
dc.subjectDactylis glomerataen_US
dc.subjectdegree-daysen_US
dc.subjectMetarhizium anisopliae strain F52en_US
dc.subjectSphenophorus parvulusen_US
dc.titlePest management of billbugs in orchardgrass grown in Virginiaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentEntomologyen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Science In the Life Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science In the Life Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairYoungman, Roger R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPfeiffer, Douglas G.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPaulson, Sally L.en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-12162010-130029/en_US


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