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dc.contributor.authorIvory, Adrienne Holzen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-06T15:43:42Z
dc.date.available2017-04-06T15:43:42Z
dc.date.issued2010-08-30en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-09132010-120928en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/77200
dc.description.abstractAlthough the effects of violent video games on aggression in users have been researched extensively and the resulting body of research shows that violent video games can increase aggressive behaviors, aggression-related feelings and thoughts, and physiological arousal, no empirical studies to date have examined whether there are similar and parallel effects of verbal aggression (e.g., profanity) in video game content. A 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial experiment (N = 321) tested the effects of profanity used by protagonists (protagonist profanity present versus absent) and antagonists (antagonist profanity present versus absent) on users' hostile expectations, accessibility of aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, perceived arousal, use of profanity, enjoyment, presence, and perceived performance while taking into account the potential moderating role of gender and controlling for several individual difference variables. The study's factors were manipulated via the creation of four versions of an original three-dimensional "first-person shooter" video game. Profanity used by both protagonist and antagonist characters was found to have significant effects on players' hostile expectations, an important higher-order aggressive outcome that is the most direct precursor to aggressive behaviors in the process described by the general aggression model. There was limited evidence for effects of profanity in game content on players' accessibility of aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and perceived arousal. Additionally, profanity had little impact on how much players used profanity themselves, how much they enjoyed the game, feelings of presence, and how they rated their performance in the game. These trends were consistent across a range of demographic, personality, and video game experience dimensions that were measured, even though several of these individual difference variables were found to be related to some outcome variables and to each other. Therefore, while this study's findings did not necessarily indicate imitative modeling of profanity, they point to the possibility of more general effects regarding aggressive outcomes. This study's findings emphasize the need for future research investigating the effects of profanity in video games and other media.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectProfanityen_US
dc.subjectAggressionen_US
dc.subjectComputer Gamesen_US
dc.subjectVideo Gamesen_US
dc.subjectMedia Effectsen_US
dc.titleThe Effects of Profanity in Violent Video Game Content on Players' Hostile Expectations, Accessibility of Aggressive Thoughts, Aggressive Feelings, and Other Responsesen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentHuman Developmenten_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHuman Developmenten_US
dc.contributor.committeechairKaestle, Christine E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMeszaros, Peggy S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFu, Victoria R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberTedesco, John C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSmith, Cynthia L.en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-09132010-120928/en_US
dc.date.sdate2010-09-13en_US
dc.date.rdate2016-09-30
dc.date.adate2010-10-08en_US


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