Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorZhang, Mingqiangen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-06T15:44:12Z
dc.date.available2017-04-06T15:44:12Z
dc.date.issued2014-10-30en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-11102014-010057en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/77256
dc.description.abstractSmall angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has been widely used in polymer science to study the nano-scale morphology of various polymers. The data obtained from SAXS give information about sizes and shapes of macromolecules, characteristic distances of partially ordered materials, pore sizes, and so on. The understanding of these structural parameters is crucial in polymer science in that it will help to explain the origin of various properties of polymers, and guide design of future polymers with desired properties. We have been able to further develop the contrast variation method in SAXS to study the morphology of Nafion 117CS containing different alkali metal ions in solid state. Contrast variation allows one to manipulate scattering data to obtain desired morphological information. At room temperature, only the crystalline peak was found for Na⁺-form Nafion, while for Cs⁺-form Nafion only the ionic peak was observed. The utilization of one dimensional correlation function on different counterion forms of Nafion further demonstrates the necessity of contrast variation method in obtaining more detailed morphological information of Nafion. This separation of the ionic peak and the crystalline peak in Nafion provides a means to independently study the crystalline and ionic components without each other's effect, which could be further applied to other ionomer systems. We also designed time resolved SAXS experiments to study the morphological development during solution processing Nafion. As solvent was removed from Nafion dispersion through evaporation, solid-state morphological development occurred through a variety of processes including phase-inversion, aggregation of interacting species (e.g., ionic functionalities), and crystallization of backbone segments. To probe the real-time morphological development during membrane processing that accurately simulates industrial protocols, a unique sample cell has been constructed that allows for through-film synchrotron SAXS data acquisition during solvent evaporation and film formation. For the first time, this novel experiment allows for a complete analysis of structural evolution from solution/dispersion to solid-state film formation, and we were able to show that the crystallites within Nafion develop later than the formation of ionic domains, and they do not reside in the cylindrical particles, but are dispersed in solution/dispersion. Besides bulk morphology of Nafion, we have also performed Grazing Incident SAXS to study the surface morphology of Nafion. We were able to manipulate the surface morphology of Nafion via neutralizing H⁺-form Nafion with different large organic counterions, as well as annealing Nafion thin films under different temperatures. This not only allows to obtain more detailed information of the nano-structures in Nafion thin films, but also provides a means to achieve desired morphology for better fuel cell applications. We have also been able to study the polymer chain conformation in solution via measuring persistence length by utilizing solution SAXS. Different methods have been applied to study the SAXS profiles, and the measured persistence lengths for stilbene and styrenic alternating copolymers range from 2 to 6 nm, which characterizes these copolymers into a class of semi-rigid polymers. This study allows to elucidate the steric crowding effect on the chain stiffness of these polymers, which provides fundamental understanding of polymer chain behaviors in solution. Self-assembling in block copolymers has also been studied using SAXS. We established a morphological model for a multiblock copolymer used as a fuel cell material from General Motors®, and this morphological model could be used to explain the origins of the mechanical and transport properties of this material. Furthermore, several other block copolymers have been studied using SAXS, which showed interesting phase separated morphologies. These morphological data have been successfully applied to explain the origins of various properties of these block copolymers, which provide fundamental knowledge of structure-property relationship in block copolymers.
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectsolution processingen_US
dc.subjectsmall angle X-ray scatteringen_US
dc.subjectmorphologyen_US
dc.subjectblock copolymeren_US
dc.subjectproton exchange membraneen_US
dc.subjectionomeren_US
dc.subjectNafion®en_US
dc.subjectperfluorosulfonic aid ionomeren_US
dc.titleMorphological Characterization and Analysis of Ion-Containing Polymers Using Small Angle X-ray Scatteringen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentChemistryen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairMoore, Robert Bowenen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRiffle, Judy S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMarand, Hervéen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLong, Timothy E.en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-11102014-010057/en_US
dc.date.sdate2014-11-10en_US
dc.date.rdate2016-10-24
dc.date.adate2015-02-03en_US


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record