Correlation-Based Detection and Classification of Rail Wheel Defects using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Acoustic Emissions
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Defected wheel are one the major reasons endangered state of railroad vehicles safety statue, due to vehicle derailment and worsen the quality of freight and passenger transportation. Therefore, timely defect detection for monitoring and detecting the state of defects is highly critical. This thesis presents a passive non-contact acoustic structural health monitoring approach using ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) to detect certain defects on different structures, as well as, classifying the type of the defect on them. The acoustic emission signals used in this study are in the ultrasonic range (18-120 kHz), which is significantly higher than the majority of the research in this area thus far. For the proposed method, an impulse excitation, such as a hammer strike, is applied to the structure. In addition, ultrasound techniques have higher sensitivity to both surface and subsurface defects, which make the defect detection more accurate. Three structures considered for this study are: 1) a longitudinal beam, 2) a lifting weight, 3) an actual rail-wheel. A longitudinal beam was used at the first step for a better understanding of physics of the ultrasound propagation from the defect, as well, develop a method for extracting the signature response of the defect. Besides, the inherent directionality of the ultrasound microphone increases the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and could be useful in the noisy areas. Next, by considering the ultimate goal of the project, lifting weight was chosen, due to its similarity to the ultimate goal of this project that is a rail-wheel. A detection method and metric were developed by using the lifting weight and two type of synthetic defects were classified on this structure. Also, by using same extracted features, the same types of defects were detected and classified on an actual rail-wheel.
- Masters Theses