Now showing items 21-40 of 862

    • A Model for a Smallpox-Vaccination Policy 

      Bozzette, Samuel A.; Boer, Rob; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Brower, Jennifer L.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Morton, Sally C.; Stoto, Michael A. (NEJM Group, 2003-01-30)
      Background: The new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination. Methods: We developed scenarios of smallpox attacks and built a stochastic model of ...
    • Efficacy and Safety of Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance: A Meta-analysis 

      Shekelle, Paul G.; Hardy, Mary; Morton, Sally C.; Maglione, Margaret; Mojica, Walter A.; Suttorp, Marika J.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Jungvig, Lara; Gagné, James (AMA, 2003-03-26)
      CONTEXT: Ephedra and ephedrine sometimes are used for weight loss or enhanced athletic performance, but the efficacy and safety of these compounds are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of ephedra ...
    • Mycobacterial aerosols and respiratory disease 

      Falkinham, Joseph O., III (2003-07)
      Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae, and the new species M. immunogenum, have been implicated in outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis or respiratory problems in a wide ...
    • The molecular mechanism linking muscle fat accumulation to insulin resistance 

      Dohm, G. Lynis; Hulver, Matthew W. (The Nutrition Society, 2004)
      Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a co-morbidity of obesity and a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. ...
    • Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials 

      Chang, John T.; Morton, Sally C.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.; Mojica,Walter A.; Maglione, Margaret; Suttorp, Marika J.; Roth, Elizabeth A.; Shekelle, Paul G. (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2004-03-20)
      Objective: To assess the relative effectiveness of interventions to prevent falls in older adults to either a usual care group or control group. Design: Systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources Medline, ...
    • Medical Monitoring Applications for Wearable Computing 

      Raskovic, Dejan; Martin, Thomas; Jovanov, Emil (The British Computer Society, 2004-04-01)
      Medical monitors have benefited from technological advances in the field of wireless communication, processing and power sources. These advances have made possible miniaturization and prolonged operating times of medical ...
    • Heat transfer model to characterize the focal cooling necessary to suppress spontaneous epileptiform activity 

      Guerra, Reynaldo G.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Garcia, Paul A.; Rubinsky, Boris; Berger, Mitchel (SPIE, 2005-04-14)
      Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of the electrical activity of the brain. Symptoms are manifested as impairment of motor, sensory, or psychic function with or without loss of consciousness or ...
    • Ephedra 

      Morton, Sally C. (Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2005-08)
      In February 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), stating that such supplements present an unreasonable risk of illness or ...
    • Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective? 

      Shekelle, Paul G.; Hardy, Mary; Morton, Sally C.; Coulter, Ian; Venuturupalli, Swamy; Favreau, Joya; Hilton, Lara K. (Frontline Medical Communications Inc., 2005-10)
      Objective: To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of Ayurvedic therapies for diabetes mellitus. Design: Systematic review of trials. Measurements and main results: We found no study that assessed ...
    • Policy Adjustment in a Dynamic Economic Game 

      Li, Jian; McClure, Samuel M.; King-Casas, Brooks; Montague, P. Read (PLOS, 2006)
      Making sequential decisions to harvest rewards is a notoriously difficult problem. One difficulty is that the real world is not stationary and the reward expected from a contemplated action may depend in complex ways on ...
    • When Things Are Better or Worse than Expected: The Medial Frontal Cortex and the Allocation of Processing Resources 

      Potts, Geoffrey F.; Martin, Laura E.; Burton, Philip; Montague, P. Read (MIT, 2006)
      Access to limited-capacity neural systems of cognitive control must be restricted to the most relevant information. How the brain identifies and selects items for preferential processing is not fully understood. Anatomical ...
    • Intersection Decision Support: Evaluation of a Violation Warning System to Mitigate Straight Crossing Path Collisions 

      Neale, Vicki L.; Perez, Miguel A.; Doerzaph, Zachary R. (Zachary Richard); Lee, Suzanne E.; Stone, Scott; Dingus, Thomas A. (Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research, 2006-04)
      This project entailed the design, development, testing, and evaluation of intersection decision support (IDS) systems to address straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crashes. This type of intersection crash is responsible ...
    • Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Risk 

      MacLean, Catherine H.; Newberry, Sydne J.; Mojica, Walter A.; Khanna, Puja; Issa, Amalia M.; Suttorp, Marika J.; Lim, Yee-Wee; Traina, Shana B.; Hilton, Lara; Garland, Rena; Morton, Sally C. (AMA, 2006-04)
      Context: Omega-3 fatty acids are purported to reduce the risk of cancer. Studies have reported mixed results. Objective: To synthesize published and unpublished evidence to determine estimates of the effect of omega-3 ...
    • Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II 

      Bhatnagar, Vibha; Stoto, Michael A.; Morton, Sally C.; Boer, Rob; Bozzette, Samuel A. (BMC, 2006-05-05)
      Background: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A ...
    • An Early Event in Adipogenesis, the Nuclear Selection of the CCAAT Enhancer-binding Protein ß (C/EBP ß ) mRNA by HuR and its Translocation to the Cytosol2006 

      Gantt, Kira (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2006-07)
      HuR is a ligand for nuclear mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate-rich elements in the 3_-untranslated region. Once bound to the mRNA, HuR is recognized by adapter proteins that then facilitate nuclear export of the complex. ...
    • Policy Adjustment in a Dynamic Economic Game 

      Li, Jian; McClure, Samuel M.; King-Casas, Brooks; Montague, P. Read (PLOS, 2006-12)
      Making sequential decisions to harvest rewards is a notoriously difficult problem. One difficulty is that the real world is not stationary and the reward expected from a contemplated action may depend in complex ways on ...
    • Unsupervised clustering of gene expression data points at hypoxia as possible trigger for metabolic syndrome 

      Ptitsyn, Andrey; Hulver, Matthew W.; Cefalu, William; York, David; Smith, Steven R (2006-12-19)
      Background Classification of large volumes of data produced in a microarray experiment allows for the extraction of important clues as to the nature of a disease. Results Using multi-dimensional unsupervised FOREL (FORmal ...
    • Improved pasture resources in the Madiama Commune of Mali, West Africa: Working with women groups at the village level 

      El Hadj, Meriem; Abaye, Azenegashe Ozzie; Moore, Keith M. (2007)
      The objectives of this project were to evaluate the chemical characteristics (crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility, fiber, etc.) of ensiled vs. fresh C. tora, examine the effect of additives (water or honey) ...
    • Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options: A workshop 

      Osofsky, S.A. (2007)
      Livestock's long shadow takes into account the livestock sector's direct impacts, plus the environmental effects of related land use changes and production of the feed crops animals consume. It finds that expanding population ...
    • Mining Novellas from PubMed Abstracts using a Storytelling Algorithm 

      Gresock, Joseph; Kumar, Deept; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren (Department of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 2007), TR-07-08
      Motivation: There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and entire processes. Each article investigates particular subsets of a biological ...