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Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward
In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of ...
Neural signature of fictive learning signals in a sequential investment task
Reinforcement learning models now provide principled guides for a wide range of reward learning experiments in animals and humans. One key learning (error) signal in these models is experiential and reports ongoing temporal ...