Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMann, Georgianna Rhodesen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-05T06:00:18Z
dc.date.available2017-08-05T06:00:18Z
dc.date.issued2016-02-11en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:6997en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/78672
dc.description.abstractNearly one-third of children in the United States (U.S.) are classified as overweight or obese. Weight status in childhood and adolescence has been tied to adult obesity, which also affects more than one-third of adults in the U.S. Availability of foods and beverages can affect dietary habits, particularly in schools. Students spend most of their waking hours and consume almost half of their daily energy intake in schools. In July of 2014, competitive foods and beverages were required to meet the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards. Competitive foods and beverages are items sold outside of the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. Competitive foods include items offered à la carte, in vending machines, in school stores, and as fundraisers. The goals of this study were to: 1) examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages in vending machines and as à la carte available to students and 2) assess snack food and beverage intake by students before and after the implementation of the new standards in a sample of middle schools in rural Appalachian Virginia. Eight middle schools with higher than 50% of student eligibility for free or reduced priced lunches were included in the sample. Audits of food and beverage products sold in vending machines and à la carte were completed in the spring of 2014 and 2015. Food frequency questionnaires were completed by students in participating schools. Results showed improvements in school food offerings, though no schools were completely compliant with the new standards. The components of students' diets did not change significantly during the study period, suggesting that improved compliance may not be enough to create a dietary shift. Foods were often replaced with reformulated versions of the same products sold before the implementation of the standards. Incentives for schools to sell more nutrient-dense options such as fruits and vegetables may be helpful to create changes in student's diets. Schools may also require additional training and assistance to fully implement nutrition standards and reach full compliance. Further research is needed to understand barriers to and possible solutions for offering healthier foods and beverages to students in middle schools.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectadolescentsen_US
dc.subjectchildrenen_US
dc.subjectchildhood obesityen_US
dc.subjectschool policyen_US
dc.subjectfood policyen_US
dc.subjectsnacksen_US
dc.subjectmiddle schoolen_US
dc.subjectruralen_US
dc.titleEffect of a New Nationally-Mandated Healthy Competitive Foods Policy on Middle School Students' Dietary Intakeen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentHuman Nutrition, Foods, and Exerciseen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHuman Nutrition, Foods, and Exerciseen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairSerrano, Elena L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBill, Eileen Smith Andersonen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDuncan, Susanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHosig, Kathryn Wrighten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHedrick, Valisa E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKraak, Vivicaen_US


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record