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dc.contributor.authorGaillard, Sarah C.en_US
dc.description.abstractDiesel particulate matter (DPM) is the solid portion of diesel exhaust, which occurs primarily in the submicron range. It is complex in nature, occuring in clusters and agglomerated chains, and with variable composition depending on engine operating conditions, fuel type, equipment maintenance, etc. DPM is an occupational health hazard that has been associated with lung cancer risks and other respiratory issues. Underground miners have some of the highest exposures to DPM, due to work in confined spaces with diesel powered equipment. Large-opening mines present particular concerns because sufficient ventilation is very challenging. In such environments, reliable DPM sampling and monitoring is critical to protecting miner health. Though complex, DPM is made up primarily of elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which can be summed to obtain total carbon (TC). The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) currently limits personal DPM exposures in metal/non-metal mines to 160 µg/m3 TC on an 8-hour time weighted average. To demonstrate compliance, exposures are monitored by collecting filter samples, which are sent to an outside lab and analyzed using the NIOSH 5040 Standard Method. To support real-time results, and thus more timely decision making, the Airtec handheld DPM monitor was developed. It measures EC, which is generally well correlated with TC, using a laser absorption technique as DPM accumulates on a filter sample. Though intended as a personal monitor, the Airtec has application as an engineering tool. A field study is reported here which demonstrated the usefulness of the Airtec in tracking temporal and spatial trends in DPM. An approach to sensitizing the monitor to allow "spot checking" was also demonstrated. Since DPM in mine environments generally occurs with other airborne particulates, namely dust generated during the mining process, DPM sampling must be done with consideration for analytical interferences. A common approach to dealing with mineral dust interferences is to use size selectors in the sampling train to separate DPM from dust; these devices are generally effective because DPM and dust largely occur in different size ranges. An impactor-type device (DPMI) is currently the industry standard for DPM sampling, but it is designed as a consumable device. Particularly for continuous monitoring applications, the sharp cut cyclone (SCC) has been suggested as a favorable alternative. In another field study reported here, the effect of aging (i.e., loading as an artifact of sampling) on the DPMI and SCC was investigated. Results suggest the effective cut size of the DPMI will be reduced much more rapidly than that of the SCC with aging — though even in a relatively high dust, high DPM environment, the DPMI performs adequately. In a third field study, the possibility of attachment between DPM and respirable dust particles was investigated. Such a phenomenon may have implications for both reliable sampling and health outcomes. Data collected by transmission electron microscope (TEM) on samples collected in the study mine showed that DPM-dust attachment does indeed occur. Moreover, the study results suggest that respirable particulate sampling — as opposed to submicron sampling, which is currently used — may be favorable for ensuring that oversized DPM is not excluded from samples. This strategy may require additional sample preparation to minimize dust interferences, but methods have been previously developed and were demonstrated here.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectDiesel Particulate Matteren_US
dc.subjectMonitoring DPMen_US
dc.subjectTransmission Electron Microscopeen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMining and Minerals Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineMining Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairSarver, Emily Allynen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKeles, Cigdemen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLuxbacher, Kramer Davisen_US

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