Now showing items 333-352 of 408

    • Scaling Law for Photon Transmission through Optically Turbid Slabs Based on Random Walk Theory 

      Li, Xuesong; Ma, Lin (MDPI, 2012-03-01)
      Past work has demonstrated the value of a random walk theory (RWT) to solve multiple-scattering problems arising in numerous contexts. This paper's goal is to investigate the application range of the RWT using Monte Carlo ...
    • Seafood Processing and Safety 

      Jahncke, Michael L. (MDPI, 2016-05-13)
      Food microorganisms are found on all surfaces (skin and gills) and in the intestines of fishery products.[...]
    • Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow 

      Chancellor, Nathan Brent; Eatherton, Matthew R.; Roke, David A.; Akbaş, Tuğçe (MDPI, 2014-09-18)
      Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage ...
    • Sensitivity Enhancement in Magnetic Sensors Based on Ferroelectric-Bimorphs and Multiferroic Composites 

      Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Qu, Peng; Petrov, Vladimir; Qu, Hongwei; Srinivasan, Gopalan (MDPI, 2016-02-20)
      Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the ...
    • Sensor Fusion and State Estimation of IoT Enabled Wind Energy Conversion System 

      Noor-A-Rahim, Md.; Khyam, M. O.; Li, Xinde; Pesch, Dirk (MDPI, 2019-04-01)
      The use of renewable energy has increased dramatically over the past couple of decades. Wind farms, consisting of wind turbines, play a vital role in the generation of renewable energy. For monitoring and maintenance ...
    • Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy) Transcriptome 

      Weisberg, Alexandra J.; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H.; Jelesko, John G. (MDPI, 2017-11-10)
      Contact with poison ivy plants is widely dreaded because they produce a natural product called urushiol that is responsible for allergenic contact delayed-dermatitis symptoms lasting for weeks. For this reason, the catchphrase ...
    • A Series of Supramolecular Complexes for Solar Energy Conversion via Water Reduction to Produce Hydrogen: An Excited State Kinetic Analysis of Ru(II),Rh(III),Ru(II) Photoinitiated Electron Collectors 

      White, Travis A.; Knoll, Jessica D.; Arachchige, Shamindri M.; Brewer, Karen J. (MDPI, 2011-12-27)
      Mixed-metal supramolecular complexes have been designed that photochemically absorb solar light, undergo photoinitiated electron collection and reduce water to produce hydrogen fuel using low energy visible light. This ...
    • Sibling sRNA RyfA1 Influences Shigella dysenteriae Pathogenesis 

      Fris, Megan E.; Broach, William H.; Klim, Sarah E.; Coschigano, Peter W.; Carroll, Ronan K.; Caswell, Clayton C.; Murphy, Erin R. (MDPI, 2017-01-26)
      Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) of Shigella dysenteriae and other pathogens are vital for the regulation of virulence-associated genes and processes. Here, we characterize RyfA1, one member of a sibling pair of sRNAs ...
    • Single Mode Air-Clad Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber 

      Hill, Cary; Homa, Dan; Yu, Zhihao; Cheng, Yujie; Liu, Bo; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary (MDPI; MDPI, 2017-05-03)
      The observation of single mode propagation in an air-clad single crystal sapphire optical fiber at wavelengths at and above 783 nm is presented for the first time. A high-temperature wet acid etching method was used to ...
    • Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Chronic Silver Nanoparticle Exposure Induces Cell Division Defects in Human Epithelial Cells 

      Garcia, Ellen B.; Alms, Cynthia; Hinman, Albert W.; Kelly, Conor; Smith, Adam; Vance, Marina; Loncarek, Jadranka; Marr, Linsey C.; Cimini, Daniela (MDPI, 2019-06-11)
      Multiple organizations have urged a paradigm shift from traditional, whole animal, chemical safety testing to alternative methods. Although these forward-looking methods exist for risk assessment and predication, animal ...
    • Skateboards as a Sustainable Recyclable Material 

      Willard, Dylan T.; Loferski, Joseph R. (MDPI, 2018-05-15)
      The exact number of skateboards manufactured every year is unknown, but it is estimated to be in the millions. Most skateboard decks are made from a high grade of maple (Acer spp.) veneer plywood and typically last only a ...
    • “Smart” Tools for Socially Sustainable Transport: A Review of Mobility Apps 

      Gebresselassie, Mahtot; Sanchez, Thomas W. (MDPI, 2018-05-30)
      In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental ...
    • Soil Carbon Dynamics in Residential Lawns Converted from Appalachian Mixed Oak Stands 

      Campbell, Chad D.; Seiler, John R.; Wiseman, P. Eric; Strahm, Brian D.; Munsell, John F. (MDPI, 2014-03-19)
      The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed ...
    • Soil CO2 Efflux and Root Productivity in a Switchgrass and Loblolly Pine Intercropping System 

      Shrestha, Paliza; Seiler, John R.; Strahm, Brian D.; Sucre, Eric B.; Leggett, Zakiya H. (MDPI, 2016-09-30)
      Switchgrass intercropped with loblolly pine plantations can provide valuable feedstock for bioenergy production while providing ancillary benefits like controlling competing vegetation and enhancing soil C. Better understanding ...
    • Solar Neutrinos Spectroscopy with Borexino Phase-II 

      Miramonti, Lino; Agostini, Matteo; Altenmueller, Konrad; Appel, Simon; Atroshchenko, Victor; Bagdasarian, Zara; Basilico, Davide; Bellini, Gianpaolo; Benziger, Jay; Bick, Daniel; Bolognino, Irene; Bonfini, Giuseppe; Bravo, David; Caccianiga, Barbara; Calaprice, Frank; Caminata, Alessio; Caprioli, Silvia; Carlini, Marco; Cavalcante, Paolo; Cavanna, Francesca; Chepurnov, Alexander; Choi, Koun; Collica, Laura; Davini, Stefano; Derbin, Alexander; Ding, XueFeng; Di Ludovico, Antonio; Di Noto, Lea; Drachnev, Ilia; Fomenko, Kirill; Formozov, Andrey; Franco, Davide; Gabriele, Federico; Galbiati, Cristiano; Gschwender, Michael; Ghiano, Chiara; Giammarchi, Marco; Goretti, Augusto; Gromov, Maxim; Guffanti, Daniele; Hagner, Caren; Houdy, Thibaut; Hungerford, Ed; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, Anna; Jeschke, Dominik; Kobychev, Vladislav; Korablev, Denis; Korga, Gyorgy; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Laubenstein, Matthias; Litvinovich, Evgeny; Lombardi, Francesco; Lombardi, Paolo; Ludhova, Livia; Lukyanchenko, Georgy; Lukyanchenko, Liudmila; Machulin, Igor; Manuzio, Giulio; Marcocci, Simone; Maricic, Jelena; Martyn, Johann; Meroni, Emanuela; Meyer, Mikko; Misiaszek, Marcin; Muratova, Valentina; Neumair, Birgit; Oberauer, Lothar; Opitz, Bjoern; Orekhov, Vsevolod; Ortica, Fausto; Pallavicini, Marco; Papp, Laszlo; Penek, Omer; Pietrofaccia, Lidio; Pilipenko, Nelly; Pocar, Andrea; Porcelli, Alessio; Raikov, Georgy; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, Alessandro; Re, Alessandra; Redchuk, Mariia; Romani, Aldo; Rossi, Nicola; Rottenanger, Sebastian; Schöenert, Stefan; Semenov, Dmitrii; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stokes, Lee F. F.; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Testera, Gemma; Thurn, Jan; Toropova, Maria; Unzhakov, Evgenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, Bruce; von Feilitzsch, Franz; Weinz, Stefan; Wojcik, Marcin; Wurm, Michael; Yokley, Zachary; Zaimidoroga, Oleg; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zuber, Kai; Zuzel, Grzegorz (MDPI, 2018-11-07)
      Solar neutrinos have played a central role in the discovery of the neutrino oscillation mechanism. They still are proving to be a unique tool to help investigate the fusion reactions that power stars and further probe basic ...
    • Some Trends in Quantum Thermodynamics 

      von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Gemmer, Jochen (MDPI, 2014-06-23)
      Traditional answers to what the 2nd Law is are well known. Some are based on the microstate of a system wandering rapidly through all accessible phase space, while others are based on the idea of a system occupying an ...
    • A Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Vegetation and Poverty 

      Dawson, Teddy; Sandoval, J.S. Onésimo; Sagan, Vasit; Crawford, Thomas (MDPI, 2018-03-01)
      The goal of this paper was to investigate poverty and inequities that are associated with vegetation. First, we performed a pixel-level linear regression on time-series and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for ...
    • Spatial Prediction of Erosion Risk of a Small Mountainous Watershed Using RUSLE: A Case-Study of the Palar Sub-Watershed in Kodaikanal, South India 

      Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Sridhar, Venkataramana (MDPI, 2018-11-09)
      An erosion model using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) equation derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER G-DEM) and LANDSAT 8 is presented ...
    • Spatiotemporal Variation in Environmental Vibrio cholerae in an Estuary in Southern Coastal Ecuador 

      Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Ordóñez-Enireb, Eunice; Chu, Winnie; Finkelstein, Julia L.; King, Christine A.; Escobar, Luis E.; Lupone, Christina; Heras, Froilan; Tauzer, Erica; Waggoner, Egan; James, Tyler G.; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Polhemus, Mark (MDPI, 2018-03-10)
      Cholera emergence is strongly linked to local environmental and ecological context. The 1991–2004 pandemic emerged in Perú and spread north into Ecuador’s El Oro province, making this a key site for potential re-emergence. ...
    • Spatiotemporal Variation of Precipitation Regime in China from 1961 to 2014 from the Standardized Precipitation Index 

      Yuan, Xuefeng; Jian, Jinshi; Jiang, Gang (MDPI, 2016-10-27)
      Prediction of drought and flood events can be difficult, but the standardized precipitation index (SPI) calculated from monthly data may be a useful tool for predicting future dryness/wetness events in China. The rainy ...