Now showing items 366-385 of 440

    • Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Chronic Silver Nanoparticle Exposure Induces Cell Division Defects in Human Epithelial Cells 

      Garcia, Ellen B.; Alms, Cynthia; Hinman, Albert W.; Kelly, Conor; Smith, Adam; Vance, Marina; Loncarek, Jadranka; Marr, Linsey C.; Cimini, Daniela (MDPI, 2019-06-11)
      Multiple organizations have urged a paradigm shift from traditional, whole animal, chemical safety testing to alternative methods. Although these forward-looking methods exist for risk assessment and predication, animal ...
    • Skateboards as a Sustainable Recyclable Material 

      Willard, Dylan T.; Loferski, Joseph R. (MDPI, 2018-05-15)
      The exact number of skateboards manufactured every year is unknown, but it is estimated to be in the millions. Most skateboard decks are made from a high grade of maple (Acer spp.) veneer plywood and typically last only a ...
    • “Smart” Tools for Socially Sustainable Transport: A Review of Mobility Apps 

      Gebresselassie, Mahtot; Sanchez, Thomas W. (MDPI, 2018-05-30)
      In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental ...
    • Soil Carbon Dynamics in Residential Lawns Converted from Appalachian Mixed Oak Stands 

      Campbell, Chad D.; Seiler, John R.; Wiseman, P. Eric; Strahm, Brian D.; Munsell, John F. (MDPI, 2014-03-19)
      The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed ...
    • Soil CO2 Efflux and Root Productivity in a Switchgrass and Loblolly Pine Intercropping System 

      Shrestha, Paliza; Seiler, John R.; Strahm, Brian D.; Sucre, Eric B.; Leggett, Zakiya H. (MDPI, 2016-09-30)
      Switchgrass intercropped with loblolly pine plantations can provide valuable feedstock for bioenergy production while providing ancillary benefits like controlling competing vegetation and enhancing soil C. Better understanding ...
    • Soil Disturbance Effects from Tethered Forwarding on Steep Slopes in Brazilian Eucalyptus Plantations 

      Garren, Austin M.; Bolding, M. Chad; Aust, W. Michael; Moura, Angelo C.; Barrett, Scott M. (MDPI, 2019-08-22)
      Traditional timber harvests on steep slopes have been conducted through labor-intensive and sometimes environmentally impactful methods, such as manual felling with chainsaws and extraction using bladed skid trails, winching, ...
    • Solar Neutrinos Spectroscopy with Borexino Phase-II 

      Miramonti, Lino; Agostini, Matteo; Altenmueller, Konrad; Appel, Simon; Atroshchenko, Victor; Bagdasarian, Zara; Basilico, Davide; Bellini, Gianpaolo; Benziger, Jay; Bick, Daniel; Bolognino, Irene; Bonfini, Giuseppe; Bravo, David; Caccianiga, Barbara; Calaprice, Frank; Caminata, Alessio; Caprioli, Silvia; Carlini, Marco; Cavalcante, Paolo; Cavanna, Francesca; Chepurnov, Alexander; Choi, Koun; Collica, Laura; Davini, Stefano; Derbin, Alexander; Ding, XueFeng; Di Ludovico, Antonio; Di Noto, Lea; Drachnev, Ilia; Fomenko, Kirill; Formozov, Andrey; Franco, Davide; Gabriele, Federico; Galbiati, Cristiano; Gschwender, Michael; Ghiano, Chiara; Giammarchi, Marco; Goretti, Augusto; Gromov, Maxim; Guffanti, Daniele; Hagner, Caren; Houdy, Thibaut; Hungerford, Ed; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, Anna; Jeschke, Dominik; Kobychev, Vladislav; Korablev, Denis; Korga, Gyorgy; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Laubenstein, Matthias; Litvinovich, Evgeny; Lombardi, Francesco; Lombardi, Paolo; Ludhova, Livia; Lukyanchenko, Georgy; Lukyanchenko, Liudmila; Machulin, Igor; Manuzio, Giulio; Marcocci, Simone; Maricic, Jelena; Martyn, Johann; Meroni, Emanuela; Meyer, Mikko; Misiaszek, Marcin; Muratova, Valentina; Neumair, Birgit; Oberauer, Lothar; Opitz, Bjoern; Orekhov, Vsevolod; Ortica, Fausto; Pallavicini, Marco; Papp, Laszlo; Penek, Omer; Pietrofaccia, Lidio; Pilipenko, Nelly; Pocar, Andrea; Porcelli, Alessio; Raikov, Georgy; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, Alessandro; Re, Alessandra; Redchuk, Mariia; Romani, Aldo; Rossi, Nicola; Rottenanger, Sebastian; Schöenert, Stefan; Semenov, Dmitrii; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stokes, Lee F. F.; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Testera, Gemma; Thurn, Jan; Toropova, Maria; Unzhakov, Evgenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, Bruce; von Feilitzsch, Franz; Weinz, Stefan; Wojcik, Marcin; Wurm, Michael; Yokley, Zachary; Zaimidoroga, Oleg; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zuber, Kai; Zuzel, Grzegorz (MDPI, 2018-11-07)
      Solar neutrinos have played a central role in the discovery of the neutrino oscillation mechanism. They still are proving to be a unique tool to help investigate the fusion reactions that power stars and further probe basic ...
    • Some Trends in Quantum Thermodynamics 

      von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Gemmer, Jochen (MDPI, 2014-06-23)
      Traditional answers to what the 2nd Law is are well known. Some are based on the microstate of a system wandering rapidly through all accessible phase space, while others are based on the idea of a system occupying an ...
    • A Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Vegetation and Poverty 

      Dawson, Teddy; Sandoval, J.S. Onésimo; Sagan, Vasit; Crawford, Thomas (MDPI, 2018-03-01)
      The goal of this paper was to investigate poverty and inequities that are associated with vegetation. First, we performed a pixel-level linear regression on time-series and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for ...
    • Spatial Prediction of Erosion Risk of a Small Mountainous Watershed Using RUSLE: A Case-Study of the Palar Sub-Watershed in Kodaikanal, South India 

      Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Sridhar, Venkataramana (MDPI, 2018-11-09)
      An erosion model using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) equation derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER G-DEM) and LANDSAT 8 is presented ...
    • Spatiotemporal Variation in Environmental Vibrio cholerae in an Estuary in Southern Coastal Ecuador 

      Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Ordóñez-Enireb, Eunice; Chu, Winnie; Finkelstein, Julia L.; King, Christine A.; Escobar, Luis E.; Lupone, Christina; Heras, Froilan; Tauzer, Erica; Waggoner, Egan; James, Tyler G.; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Polhemus, Mark (MDPI, 2018-03-10)
      Cholera emergence is strongly linked to local environmental and ecological context. The 1991–2004 pandemic emerged in Perú and spread north into Ecuador’s El Oro province, making this a key site for potential re-emergence. ...
    • Spatiotemporal Variation of Precipitation Regime in China from 1961 to 2014 from the Standardized Precipitation Index 

      Yuan, Xuefeng; Jian, Jinshi; Jiang, Gang (MDPI, 2016-10-27)
      Prediction of drought and flood events can be difficult, but the standardized precipitation index (SPI) calculated from monthly data may be a useful tool for predicting future dryness/wetness events in China. The rainy ...
    • Sport for All and Social Inclusion of Individuals with Impairments: A Case Study from Brazil 

      Kirakosyan, Lyusyena (MDPI, 2019-06-01)
      This article examines the discourses about Sport for All (SFA) and their evolution over the past four decades in Brazil and analyzes the implications of those discourses for social inclusion of Brazilians with impairments ...
    • A Standard Characterization Methodology for Respirable Coal Mine Dust Using SEM-EDX 

      Sellaro, Rachel; Sarver, Emily; Baxter, Daniel (MDPI, 2015-12-14)
      A key consideration for responsible development of mineral and energy resources is the well-being of workers. Respirable dust in mining environments represents a serious concern for occupational health. In particular, coal ...
    • Static-Aligned Piezoelectric Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Nanofibers/MWCNT Composite Membrane: Facile Method 

      Shehata, Nader; Elnabawy, Eman; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Hassanin, Ahmed H.; Salah, Mohamed; Nair, Remya; Ahmad Bhat, Sameer (MDPI, 2018-09-01)
      Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric electrospun nanofibers have been intensively used for sensing and actuation applications in the last decade. However, in most cases, random PVDF piezoelectric nanofiber mats ...
    • Status and Perspectives of Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Composite Materials and Applications 

      Palneedi, Haribabu; Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Priya, Shashank; Ryu, Jungho (MDPI, 2016-03-09)
      Multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) composites are attractive materials for various electrically and magnetically cross-coupled devices. Many studies have been conducted on fundamental understanding, fabrication processes, ...
    • Study on Asphalt Pavement Surface Texture Degradation Using 3-D Image Processing Techniques and Entropy Theory 

      Miao, Yinghao; Wu, Jiaqi; Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Yu, Weixiao; Wang, Sudi (MDPI, 2019-02-21)
      Surface texture is a very important factor affecting the anti-skid performance of pavements. In this paper, entropy theory is introduced to study the decay behavior of the three-dimensional macrotexture and microtexture ...
    • Subset-Continuous-Updating GMM Estimators for Dynamic Panel Data Models 

      Ashley, Richard A.; Sun, Xiaojin (MDPI, 2016-11-30)
      The two-step GMM estimators of Arellano and Bond (1991) and Blundell and Bond (1998) for dynamic panel data models have been widely used in empirical work; however, neither of them performs well in small samples with weak ...
    • Suitability of Soil Erosion Models for the Evaluation of Bladed Skid Trail BMPs in the Southern Appalachians 

      Vinson, Joseph Andrew; Barrett, Scott M.; Aust, W. Michael; Bolding, M. Chad (MDPI, 2017-12-06)
      This project measured soil erosion rates from bladed skid trails in the mountains of Virginia following a timber harvest, and compared measured erosion to four erosion model predictions produced by Universal Soil Loss ...
    • Surrogate-Based Robust Design for a Non-Smooth Radiation Source Detection Problem 

      Ştefănescu, Răzvan; Hite, Jason; Cook, Jared; Smith, Ralph C.; Mattingly, John (MDPI, 2019-05-28)
      In this paper, we develop and numerically illustrate a robust sensor network design to optimally detect a radiation source in an urban environment. This problem exhibits several challenges: penalty functionals are non-smooth ...