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A Human Serum-Based Enzyme-Free Continuous Glucose Monitoring Technique Using a Needle-Type Bio-Layer Interference Sensor
The incidence of diabetes is continually increasing, and by 2030, it is expected to have increased by 69% and 20% in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively. Therefore, glucose sensors are likely to remain in high demand in medical device markets. For the current study, we developed a needle-type bio-layer interference (BLI) sensor that can continuously monitor glucose levels. Using dialysis procedures, we were able to obtain hypoglycemic samples from commercial human serum. These dialysis-derived samples, alongside samples of normal human serum were used to evaluate the utility of the sensor for the detection of the clinical interest range of glucose concentrations (70–200 mg/dL), revealing high system performance for a wide glycemic state range (45–500 mg/dL). Reversibility and reproducibility were also tested over a range of time spans. Combined with existing BLI system technology, this sensor holds great promise for use as a wearable online continuous glucose monitoring system for patients in a hospital setting.