Control of anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l.) on mango in Senegal by fungicides and biofungicides
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Senegal ranks second for mango production among West African countries and has the potential to competitively produce mangoes for the European market. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. and Sacc. has historically been considered the causal pathogen of anthracnose of mango and other fruits, but is now known to represent a species complex. Field trials to examine the efficacy of fungicides and biofungicides were conducted in southern and northern production regions of Senegal. In three southern trials, Sonata (Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808), Serenade Optimum (Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713), and sodium molybdate provided 63%, 67% and 76% control of disease severity, respectively, whereas thiophanate methyl and azoxystrobin provided 77% and 78% control, respectively. Disease severities of all treatments were significantly lower than that of the control. Thiophanate methyl and azoxystrobin produced more disease-free mangoes (64 and 62%, respectively) than Serenade (49%), sodium molybdate (44%), and Sonata (38%). Differences within each trial were not statistically significant, but when all trials were combined, all treatments resulted in significantly more disease-free mangoes than the control. Among treatments, thiophanate methyl and azoxystrobin resulted in significantly more disease-free mangoes than Sonata. No results were obtained in the northern orchards due to an absence of disease development. Sequencing of the ITS gene region of 30 Colletotrichum isolates from mangoes from different regions in Senegal indicated that all belonged to the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Sequencing of the ApMat intergenic region identified all of them as most closely resembling C. siamense.
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