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Filter Design for Interference Cancellation for Wide and Narrow Band RF Systems
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In radio frequency (RF), filtering is an essential part of RF transceivers. They are employed for different purposes of band selection, channel selection, interference cancellation, image rejection, etc. These are all translated in selecting the wanted signal while mitigating the rest. This can be performed by either selecting the desired frequency range by a band pass filter or rejecting the unwanted part by a band stop filter. Although there has been tremendous effort to design RF tunable filters, there is still lack of designs with frequency and bandwidth software-tuning capability at frequencies above 4 GHz. This prevents the implementation of Software Defined Radios (SDR) where software tuning is a critical part in supporting multiple standards and frequency bands. Designing a tunable integrated filter will not only assist in realization of SDR, but it also causes an enormous shrinkage in the size of the circuit by replacing the current bulky off-chip filters. The main purpose of this research is to design integrated band pass and band stop filters aimed to perform interference cancellation. In order to do so, two systems are proposed for this thesis. The first system is a band pass filter capable of frequency and band with tuning for C band frequency range (4-8 GHz) and is implemented in 0.13 µm BiCMOS technology. Frequency tunability is accomplished by using a variable capacitor (varactor) and bandwidth tuning is carried out by employing a negative transconductance cell to compensate for the loss of the elements. Additional circuitry is added to the band pass filter to enhance the selectivity of the filter. The second system is a band stop filter (notch) with the same capability as the band pass filter in terms of tuning. This system is implemented in C band, similar to its band stop counterpart and is capable of tuning its depth by using a negative transconductance in an LC tank. A negative feedback is added to the circuit to improve the bandwidth. While implemented in the same process as the band pass filter, it only employs CMOS transistors since it is generally more attractive due to its lower cost and scalability. Both of the systems mentioned use a varactor for changing the center frequency which is a nonlinear element. Therefore, the nonlinearity of it is modelled using two different methods of nonlinear feedback and Volterra series in order to gain further understanding of the nonlinear process taking place in the LC tank. After the validation of the models proposed using Cadence Virtuoso simulator, two methods of design and tuning are suggested to improve the linearity of the system. After post layout-extraction, the band pass filter is capable of Q tuning in the range of 3 to 270 and higher. With the noise figure of 10 to 14 dB and input 1-dB compression point as high as 2 dBm, the system shows a reasonably good performance along its operating frequency of 4 to 8 GHz. The band stop filter which is designed in the same frequency band can achieve better than 55 dB of rejection with the noise figure of 6.7 to 8.8 dB and 1-dB compression point of -4 dBm. With the power consumption of 39 to 70 mW, the band stop filter can be used in a low power receiver to suppress unwanted signals. The technique used in the band stop filter can be applied to higher frequency ranges if the circuit is implemented in a more advanced silicon technology. Implementing the mentioned filters in a receiver along with other elements of low noise amplifiers, mixers, etc. would be a major step toward full implementation of SDR systems. Studying the linearity theory of varactors would help future designers identify the sources of nonlinearity and suggest more efficient tuning techniques to improve the linearity of RF electronic systems.
- Masters Theses