Evolutionary dynamics and competition stabilize three-species predator-prey communities
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We perform individual-based Monte Carlo simulations in a community consisting of two predator species competing for a single prey species, with the purpose of studying biodiversity stabilization in this simple model system. Predators are characterized with predation efficiency and death rates, to which Darwinian evolutionary adaptation is introduced. Competition for limited prey abundance drives the populations' optimization with respect to predation efficiency and death rates. We study the influence of various ecological elements on the final state, finding that both indirect competition and evolutionary adaptation are insufficient to yield a stable ecosystem. However, stable three-species coexistence is observed when direct interaction between the two predator species is implemented.