Dynamical regimes of vortex flow in type-II superconductors with parallel twin boundaries
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We explore the dynamics of driven magnetic flux lines in disordered type-II superconductors in the presence of twin boundaries oriented parallel to the direction of the applied magnetic field, using a three-dimensional elastic line model simulated with Langevin molecular dynamics. The lines are driven perpendicular to the planes to model the effect of an electric current applied parallel to the planes and perpendicular to the magnetic field. A study of the long-time non-equilibrium steady states for several sample thicknesses L and drive strengths F_d reveals a rich collection of dynamical regimes spanning a remarkably broad depinning transition region that separates the pinned and moving-lattice states of vortex matter. We perform novel direct measurements of flux line excitations such as half-loops and double kinks, and quantitatively analyze their excitation occurrence distributions to characterize the topologically rich flux flow profile and generate a boundary curve separating the regions of linear and non-linear transport in the (L, F_d) plane. Rich static and dynamic visualizations of the vortex matter in different drive regimes supplement the quantitative results obtained.