Fungicide Resistance of Botrytis Cinerea from Virginia Wine grapes, Strawberry, and Ornamentals Crops
Adamo, Noah Robert
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Botrytis cinerea is the principal member of the species complex that causes bunch rot of grapes and gray mold disease on other hosts including fruits and ornamental crops. It has developed resistance to many fungicides, and isolates from eastern US strawberry fields have regularly been identified with resistance to several modes of action. During the 2011-2015 growing seasons, 487 isolates were collected from Virginia wine grapes, strawberries, and ornamental crops and evaluated for sensitivity to eight different fungicides by a germ tube elongation method; for a subset of isolates, a 24-well plate mycelial growth assay was also used, and baseline sensitivity to polyoxin-D was evaluated. Resistance to benzimidazoles and quinone outside inhibitors, and low-level resistance to iprodione were common. Boscalid resistance was common in wine grapes and ornamentals. Resistance to the hydroxyanilide fenhexamid during germ tube elongation was found in only 5% of wine grape isolates, but in 33% of isolates from strawberries and ornamentals. All of the fenhexamid-resistant isolates were identified as B. cinerea carrying various mutations in the erg27 gene. An additional subset of isolates was identified with moderate resistance to fenhexamid during mycelial growth, but not germination and germ tube growth. These were identified as B. cinerea HydR2 isolates, which possess an unknown mechanism of resistance towards fenhexamid in mycelial growth. Moderate resistance to cyprodinil was common, but in grape inoculation tests, moderately resistant isolates were controlled by a field rate of cyprodinil. Diminished sensitivity to fludioxonil and fluopyram was rare. Polyoxin-D controlled most isolates in mycelial growth tests at 100 µg/ml.
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