An expanded phylogeny for the genus Phytophthora.
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A comprehensive phylogeny representing 142 described and 43 provisionally named Phytophthora species is reported here for this rapidly expanding genus. This phylogeny features signature sequences of 114 ex-types and numerous authentic isolates that were designated as representative isolates by the originators of the respective species. Multiple new subclades were assigned in clades 2, 6, 7, and 9. A single species P. lilii was placed basal to clades 1 to 5, and 7. Phytophthora stricta was placed basal to other clade 8 species, P. asparagi to clade 6 and P. intercalaris to clade 10. On the basis of this phylogeny and ancestral state reconstructions, new hypotheses were proposed for the evolutionary history of sporangial papillation of Phytophthora species. Non-papillate ancestral Phytophthora species were inferred to evolve through separate evolutionary paths to either papillate or semi-papillate species.