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dc.contributor.authorWong, Victoria L.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-02-06T09:00:27Z
dc.date.available2018-02-06T09:00:27Z
dc.date.issued2018-02-05en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:13356en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/82027
dc.description.abstractThe millipede Brachycybe lecontii Wood, 1864 is a social millipede known for forming pinwheel-shaped groups and for paternal care of eggs. Brachycybe lecontii is endemic to the eastern U.S., and its distribution overlaps with another species within the genus, Brachycybe petasata, from the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Molecular data, however, show that the closest relative of B. lecontii is Brachycybe nodulosa from East Asia. Here, I investigated various aspects of the life history, paternal care, defense, feeding, and social behavior of B. lecontii, and provided morphological and anatomical descriptions using light and scanning electron microscopy. Based on detailed observations of millipedes from 14 localities in the distribution of B. lecontii, I found the following natural history aspects. The oviposition period of B. lecontii was from mid-April to late June and the incubation period lasted 3–4 weeks. Males exclusively cared for eggs, but care of juveniles was not observed. In one case, the clutches of two males became combined and they were later cared for by only one of the males. The defensive compound of B. lecontii consisted of two isomers of the alkaloid deoxybuzonamine. Defense glands were large, occupying up to a third of the paranotal volume, and were present on all but the first four body rings. Stadia I juveniles do not have defensive secretions and stadia II juveniles have defensive pores but do not secrete. Secretions were observed only in stadia III millipedes and older. I observed Brachycybe lecontii feeding on liquids from fungi of the order Polyporales, and describe a cuticular structure on the tip of the labrum that may relate to fungivory. I found that pinwheel-shaped aggregations do not form in the absence of fungus and suggested the aggregation is associated with feeding. I describe and illustrate a previously undescribed comb-like structure on the tibia and tarsi of the six foremost leg-pairs and measure and analyze the spectral reflectance of B. lecontii exoskeleton.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectBrachycybe lecontiien_US
dc.subjectmillipedeen_US
dc.subjectdiplopodaen_US
dc.subjectnatural historyen_US
dc.titleNatural history of the social millipede Brachycybe lecontii (Wood, 1864)en_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentEntomologyen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Science in Life Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science in Life Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEntomologyen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairMarek, Paulen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAndrews, Robin M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBrewster, Carlyle C.en_US


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