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dc.contributor.authorLei, Shaohuaen_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-24T08:00:41Z
dc.date.available2018-04-24T08:00:41Z
dc.date.issued2018-04-23
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:14677en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/82868
dc.description.abstractHuman noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of viral epidemic acute gastroenteritis and responsible for the deaths of over 200,000 children each year worldwide. HuNoV research has been hampered by the long absence of a readily reproducible cell culture system and a suitable small animal model, while gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs have been a unique animal model for understanding HuNoV pathogenesis and immunity, as well as evaluating vaccine and therapeutics. Recent reports of HuNoVs infection and replication in B cells supplemented with commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae and in Blab/c mice deficient in RAG/IL2RG have gained extensive attention, and my studies utilized the well-established Gn pig model to investigate the effects of these two interventions on HuNoV infection. Surprisingly, the colonization of E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity in Gn pigs, evidenced by the significantly reduced HuNoV shedding in feces and HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and blood compared to control pigs. Moreover, HuNoV infection of enterocytes but not B cells was observed with or without E. cloacae colonization, indicating B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in Gn pigs. On the other hand, using RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system, with confirmed severe combined immunodeficiency, I evaluated the effects of host immune responses on HuNoV infection. Compared to wild-type Gn pigs, longer HuNoV shedding was observed in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs (16 versus 27 days), and higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. In addition, I evaluated dietary interventions including probiotics and rice bran using Gn pig model of HuNoV infection and diarrhea. While the colonization of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in Gn pigs completely inhibited HuNoV fecal shedding, the two cocktail regimens, in which rice bran feeding started either 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized Gn pigs, exhibited dramatic anti-HuNoV effects, including reduced incidence and shorter duration of diarrhea, as well as shorter duration of virus fecal shedding. The anti-HuNoV effects of the cocktail regimens were associated with the enhanced IFN-𝛾⁺ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and longer villus length. Taken together, my dissertation work improves our understanding of HuNoV infection and immunity, and further supports for Gn pigs as a valuable model for future studies of human enteric virus infection, host immunity, and interventions.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectgnotobiotic pigsen_US
dc.subjecthuman norovirusen_US
dc.subjectdiarrheaen_US
dc.subjectEnterobacter cloacaeen_US
dc.subjectRAG2/IL2RGen_US
dc.subjectsevere combined immunodeficiencyen_US
dc.subjectprobioticsen_US
dc.subjectrice branen_US
dc.titlePathogenesis, immunity, and prevention of human norovirus infection in gnotobiotic pigsen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical and Veterinary Sciencesen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical and Veterinary Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairYuan, Lijuanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWang, Xiaofengen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAllison, Andrew B.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMeng, Xiang-Jinen_US


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