Mechanisms for Enhancing Spectrum Utilization in a Spectrum Access System
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The goal of this thesis is to build a Protected Shared Access Model (PSAM) through database enabled Spectrum Access System (SAS). A model for the SAS is proposed, which is based on our vision for the SAS as a more dynamic and responsive architecture as a geolocation database than the current TVWS database. Major functions and capabilities of the model include, calculations of exclusion zone (EZ) of primary users with different operational parameters, use interference estimation techniques for predicting interference levels that will be generated by the new secondary users (SUs) and existing systems operating in the database service area, allocate location based transmit power levels and provide an algorithm for communications among the PUs, SUs, and the SAS to implement management and authorization framework of spectrum resources to different types of SUs. The selection of a propagation model is of utmost importance in spectrum sharing studies. Existing literature on EZs with simplified propagation models does not consider the effect of LOS interference between the PU to SU link and SU to PU link on peak points in the terrain area around the PU. The use of a terrain profile based model captures the essence of propagation over irregular terrain. Terrain regions that are far away from the PU may have a LOS between the PU and SU. So its not only the nearest area where the PU/SU can get interference, but interference is present from areas further away on high grounds having a direct LOS with the PU antenna. The exclusion zone computation with terrain profile based propagation model captures this effect, and it is the same effect that makes the shape of the exclusion zone irregular. So the propagation model used in spectrum sharing studies must be able to use the terrain for the specific geographical area for precise propagation calculations, and provide statistical reliability parameters for the computed propagation values for area of interest. For a multi-tier shared access model with incumbent access (IA) users, priority access (PA) users and general authorized access (GAA) users. The SU interference tolerance thresholds varies by the type of SU's i-e., PA users like public safety systems and mission critical users have low tolerance for interference and hence need to operate further from the PU. While GAA users like commercial broadband systems have higher interference tolerances and can operate closer to the PU. This multi-tier shared access model requires varying levels of interference protection from PU, that can be provided with multiple exclusion zones defined for different types of SU's. We propose the concept of differential spectrum access hierarchy, and define it in the context of a multi-tiered EZs that are based on quantiles of tolerable interference levels for different tiers of SUs. We also quantify and show the gain in SU capacity (or throughput) obtained by using multi-tiered EZs for different tiers of SUs. Using simulation results, we show that the size of EZs can be significantly reduced with the use of a terrain profile-based propagation model that takes into account terrain profile for signal attenuation between PUs and SUs in the P2P link. The exclusion zones involve the use of interference test points at the circumference of the protection contour of the PU. They are monitoring test points that the SAS uses with a propagation model and locations of SUs to calculate interference. Consider a model of Figure 5.1, the coexistence environment with PU, SU and the SAS with a database. As more SUs enter the system, their transmit powers creates interference for the PUs. In the event of SU interference exceeding a predefined threshold level at any of the test points, the SAS uses an interference based power control algorithm to turnoff the nearest dominant interferer's. Turning off the dominant interferers eliminates interference generated by that node at the PU. This nearest node interference cancellation significantly reduces the outage probability at the PU. Unlike existing metrics for spectrum utilization efficiency that considers separate metrics for PU interference protection and maximum use of the band for secondary use, we define a new metric for spectrum utilization efficiency. This metric uses utility functions and cost functions to measure the impact of secondary use of the spectrum on PUs as well as the degree of satisfaction SUs can achieve from reuse of such spectrum. The new spectrum utilization metric is used to evaluate tradeoffs between interference protection of PUs and SU spectrum utilization.
- Doctoral Dissertations