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dc.contributor.authorGreenberg, Chloe Francesen_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-07T06:00:09Z
dc.date.available2018-09-07T06:00:09Z
dc.date.issued2017-03-15en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:9993en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/84966
dc.description.abstractPharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) encompass a diverse group of chemicals that are not currently monitored or regulated in US drinking water or wastewater. Researchers have found low levels of TOrCs in aquatic and terrestrial environments all over the globe, and observed negative effects on impacted biota. The primary source of TOrCs in the environment is domestic wastewater discharges. Centralized wastewater treatment plants present greater risks on a global scale, but on a local scale, onsite treatment systems may have more potent impacts on resources that are invaluable to residents, including groundwater, surface waters, and soils. The objective of this thesis is to identify and characterize promising treatment technologies for onsite TOrC remediation. Receptors who could be impacted by TOrC discharges are assessed, and applications that may require alternative treatment are identified. The best treatment technologies are recognized as those that protect sensitive environmental receptors, provide permanent removal pathways for as many TOrCs as possible, and are not prohibitively expensive to install or maintain. Findings from a pilot study show increased removal of conventional pollutants and TOrCs in an aerobic treatment unit (ATU), two types of biofilter, and a hybrid constructed wetland, all relative to septic tank effluent. The constructed wetland achieved the highest nutrient removals with TN concentrations below 10 mg/L throughout the study. A system with an ATU and peat biofilters achieved the highest removals of persistent pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and lamotrigine (>85% and >95%, respectively).en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectPharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)en_US
dc.subjecttrace organic chemicals (TOrCs)en_US
dc.subjectonsite wastewater treatmenten_US
dc.subjectseptic systemen_US
dc.subjectenhanced treatment unitsen_US
dc.subjectconstructed wetlandsen_US
dc.titleOnsite Remediation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Domestic Wastewater using Alternative Systems Including Constructed Wetlandsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentCivil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEnvironmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairBoardman, Gregory D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWiddowson, Mark A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHelm, Richard F.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberThompson, Theresa M.en_US


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