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Evaluation of Quality Parameters in Gluten-Free Bread Formulated with Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Flour
Clark, Elizabeth A.
Aramouni, Fadi M.
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Flour from the fruit of breadfruit trees (Artocarpus altilis) holds the potential to serve as a wheat flour replacement in gluten-free product formulations. This study evaluated the impact of breadfruit flour and leavening agent on gluten-free bread quality. Breadfruit flour was first milled and characterized by the researchers prior to being used in this study. Experimental formulas were mixed with varying breadfruit flour inclusion (0%, 20%, 35%, and 50%) and leavening agent (yeast and baking powder). Quality parameters including density, specific volume, pH, water activity, color, and texture were assessed, and proximate analysis was performed to characterize the nutritional value of the bread. Significant differences () were found in loaf density, specific volume, color (crust and ; crumb ,, and ), pH, water activity, and crumb firmness. Additionally, a consumer sensory study was performed on the most well-liked formulations. Consumer testing yielded significant differences () between the yeast-leavened control (0% breadfruit flour) and yeast-leavened breadfruit bread (20% breadfruit flour). Nonceliac consumers rated the breadfruit treatment as significantly less acceptable than the control for all sensory characteristics assessed. These results indicate that breadfruit flour can be used at ≤20%, when leavened with yeast, to produce quality gluten-free bread. Future studies should be conducted to assess the impact of breadfruit variety and milling practices on breadfruit flour properties before further attempts are made to investigate how breadfruit flour impacts the gluten-free bread quality.