Multi-material Additive Manufacturing of Metamaterials with Giant, Tailorable Negative Poisson's Ratios
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Nature has evolved with a recurring strategy to achieve unusual mechanical properties through coupling variable elastic moduli from a few GPa to below KPa within a single tissue. The ability to produce multi-material, three-dimensional (3D) micro-architectures with high fidelity incorporating dissimilar components has been a major challenge in man-made materials. Here we show multimodulus metamaterials whose architectural element is comprised of encoded elasticity ranging from rigid to soft. We found that, in contrast to ordinary architected materials whose negative Poisson's ratio is dictated by their geometry, these type of metamaterials are capable of displaying Poisson's ratios from extreme negative to zero, independent of their 3D micro-architecture. The resulting low density metamaterials is capable of achieving functionally graded, distributed strain amplification capabilities within the metamaterial with uniform micro-architectures. Simultaneous tuning of Poisson's ratio and moduli within the 3D multi-materials could open up a broad array of material by design applications ranging from flexible armor, artificial muscles, to actuators and bio-mimetic materials.