Janzen’s Hypothesis Meets the Bogert Effect: Connecting Climate Variation, Thermoregulatory Behavior, and Rates of Physiological Evolution
Muñoz, M. M.
Bodensteiner, B. L.
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Understanding the motors and brakes that guide physiological evolution is a topic of keen interest, and is of increasing importance in light of global climate change. For more than half a century, Janzen’s hypothesis has been used to understand how climatic variability influences physiological divergence across elevation and latitude. At the same time, there has been increasing recognition that behavior and physiological evolution are mechanistically linked, with regulatory behaviors often serving to dampen environmental selection and stymie evolution (a phenomenon termed the Bogert effect). Here, we illustrate how some aspects of Janzen’s hypothesis and the Bogert effect can be connected to conceptually link climate, behavior, and rates of physiological evolution in a common framework. First, we demonstrate how thermal heterogeneity varies between nighttime and daytime environments across elevation in a tropical mountain. Using data from Hispaniolan Anolis lizards, we show how clinal variation in cold tolerance is consistent with thermally homogenous nighttime environments. Elevational patterns of heat tolerance and the preferred temperature, in contrast, are best explained by incorporating the buffering effects of thermoregulatory behavior in thermally heterogeneous daytime environments. In turn, climatic variation and behavior interact to determine rates of physiological evolution, with heat tolerance and the preferred temperature evolving much more slowly than cold tolerance. Conceptually bridging some aspects of Janzen’s hypothesis and the Bogert effect provides an integrative, cohesive framework illustrating how environment and behavior interact to shape patterns of physiological evolution.