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dc.contributor.authorGrant, Evan H. Campbell
dc.contributor.authorMiller, David A. W.
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Benedikt R.
dc.contributor.authorAdams, Michael J.
dc.contributor.authorAmburgey, Staci M.
dc.contributor.authorChambert, Thierry
dc.contributor.authorCruickshank, Sam S.
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Robert N.
dc.contributor.authorGreen, David M.
dc.contributor.authorHossack, Blake R.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Pieter T. J.
dc.contributor.authorJoseph, Maxwell B.
dc.contributor.authorRittenhouse, Tracy A. G.
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Maureen E.
dc.contributor.authorWaddle, J. Hardin
dc.contributor.authorWalls, Susan C.
dc.contributor.authorBailey, Larissa L.
dc.contributor.authorFellers, Gary M.
dc.contributor.authorGorman, Thomas A.
dc.contributor.authorRay, Andrew M.
dc.contributor.authorPilliod, David S.
dc.contributor.authorPrice, Steven J.
dc.contributor.authorSaenz, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorSadinski, Walt
dc.contributor.authorMuths, Erin
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-23T14:27:29Z
dc.date.available2019-01-23T14:27:29Z
dc.date.issued2016-05-23
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.other25625
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/86848
dc.description.abstractSince amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUS Geological Survey
dc.format.extent9
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectpopulation declines
dc.subjectconservation biology
dc.subjectadaptive management
dc.subjectclimate-change
dc.subjectland-use
dc.subjectbiodiversity
dc.subjectdynamics
dc.subjectchytridiomycosis
dc.subjectextinctions
dc.subjectoccupancy
dc.titleQuantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declinesen_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.description.notesThis work was conducted as part of the Amphibian Decline Working Group supported by the John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis, funded by the US Geological Survey. Data deposited at the US Geological Survey's John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis. The authors declare no competing financial interests. This manuscript is contribution #541 of the USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Comments from D. Hocking, P. Toschik and three anonymous reviewers improved the manuscript.
dc.title.serialScientific Reports
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/srep25625
dc.identifier.volume6
dc.type.dcmitypeText
dc.identifier.pmid27212145


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International