Influences of Test Conditions and Mixture Proportions on Property Values of Soil Treated with Cement to Represent the Wet Method of Deep Mixing
Nevarez Garibaldi, Roberto
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A laboratory testing program was conducted on cement-treated soil mixtures fabricated to represent materials produced by the wet method of deep mixing. The testing program focused on investigating the influences that variations in laboratory testing conditions and in the mix design have on measured property values. A base soil was fabricated from commercially available soil components to produce a very soft lean clay that is relatively easy to mix and can be replicated for future research. The mix designs included a range of water-to-cement ratios of the slurries and a range of cement factors to produce a range of mixture consistencies and a range of unconfined compressive strengths after curing. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and unconsolidated-undrained (UU) triaxial compression tests were conducted. Secant modulus of elasticity were determined from bottom platen displacements, deformations between bottom platen and cross bar, and from LVDT's placed directly on the cement-treated soil specimens. Five end-face treatment methods were used for the specimens: sawing-and-hand-trimming, machine grinding, sulfur capping, neoprene pads, and gypsum capping. Key findings of this research include the following: (1) The end-face treatment method does not have a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength and secant modulus; (2) a relationship of UCS with curing time, total-water-to-cement ratio, and dry density of the mixture; (3) the secant modulus determined by bottom platen displacements is significantly affected by slack and deformations in the load frame; (4) the secant modulus determined by local strain measurements was about 630 time the UCS; (5) typical values of Poisson's ratio range from about 0.05 to 0.25 for stress levels equal to half the UCS and about 0.15 to 0.35 at the UCS; (6) Confinement increased the strength at high strains from less than 20% the UCS to about 60% the UCS. In addition to testing the cured mixtures, the consistency of the mixtures were measured right after mixing using a laboratory miniature vane. A combination of the UCS relationship along with the mixture consistency may provide useful information for deep mixing contractors.
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