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dc.contributor.authorHipsey, M.R.
dc.contributor.authorBruce, L.C.
dc.contributor.authorBoon, C.
dc.contributor.authorBusch, B.
dc.contributor.authorCarey, Cayelan C.
dc.contributor.authorHamilton, D.P.
dc.contributor.authorHanson, P.C.
dc.contributor.authorRead, J.S.
dc.contributor.authorDe Sousa, E.
dc.contributor.authorWeber, M.
dc.contributor.authorWinslow, L.A.
dc.description.abstractThe General Lake Model (GLM) is a one-dimensional open-source code designed to simulate the hydrodynamics of lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. GLM was developed to support the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of researchers using sensors to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world respond to climate and land use change. The scale and diversity of lake types, locations, and sizes, and the expanding observational datasets created the need for a robust community model of lake dynamics with sufficient flexibility to accommodate a range of scientific and management questions relevant to the GLEON community. This paper summarizes the scientific basis and numerical implementation of the model algorithms, including details of sub-models that simulate surface heat exchange and ice cover dynamics, vertical mixing, and inflow-outflow dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of the model for different lake types that vary substantially in their morphology, hydrology, and climatic conditions. GLM supports a dynamic coupling with biogeochemical and ecological modelling libraries for integrated simulations of water quality and ecosystem health, and options for integration with other environmental models are outlined. Finally, we discuss utilities for the analysis of model outputs and uncertainty assessments, model operation within a distributed cloud-computing environment, and as a tool to support the learning of network participants. © 2019 Author(s).en_US
dc.publisherCopernicus GmbH
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.titleA General Lake Model (GLM 3.0) for linking with high-frequency sensor data from the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON)en_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.description.notesAcknowledgements. The primary code for GLM has been developed by Matthew R. Hipsey, Louise C. Bruce, Casper Boon, Brendan Busch, and David P. Hamilton at the University of Western Australia in collaboration with researchers participating in GLEON, with support provided by a National Science Foundation (NSF) (USA) Research Coordination Network Award. Whilst GLM is a new code, it is based on the large body of historical research and publications produced by the Centre for Water Research at the University of Western Australia, which we acknowledge for the inspiration, development, and testing of several of the model approaches that have been adopted. Funding for the initial development of the GLM code was from the U.S. NSF Cyber-enabled Discovery and Innovation grant awarded to Paul C. Hanson (lead investigator) and colleagues from 2009–2014 (NSF CDI-0941510); subsequent development was supported by the Australian Research Council projects awarded to Matthew R. Hipsey and colleagues (ARC projects LP0990428, LP130100756, and DP130104078). Funding for the optimization and improvement of the snow and ice model was provided by NSF MSB-1638704. Funding for the development of the GLM teaching module and GRAPLEr was provided by NSF ACI-1234983 and NSF EF-1702506 awarded to Cayelan C. Carey. Funding for glmtools was provided by the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Provision of the environmental symbols used for the GLM scientific diagrams are courtesy of the Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Joanne Moo and Aditya Singh also provided support in model set-up and testing. We gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers whose contribution and editing have significantly improved the paper and model.
dc.title.serialGeoscientific Model Development

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International