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dc.contributor.authorNolan, Peter Josephen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-16T08:00:42Z
dc.date.available2019-04-16T08:00:42Z
dc.date.issued2019-04-15
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:19133en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/88986
dc.description.abstractThe transport of material in geophysical fluid flows is a problem with important implications for fields as diverse as: agriculture, aviation, human health, disaster response, and weather forecasting. Due to the unsteady nature of geophysical flows, predicting how material will be transported in these systems can often be challenging. Tools from dynamical systems theory can help to improve the prediction of material transport by revealing important transport structures. These transport structures reveal areas of the flow where fluid parcels, and thus material transported by those parcels, are likely to converge or diverge. Typically, these transport structures have been uncovered by the use of Lagrangian diagnostics. Unfortunately, calculating Lagrangian diagnostics can often be time consuming and computationally expensive. Recently new Eulerian diagnostics have been developed. These diagnostics are faster and less expensive to compute, while still revealing important transport structures in fluid flows. Because Eulerian diagnostics are so new, there is still much about them and their connection to Lagrangian diagnostics that is unknown. This dissertation will fill in some of this gap and provide a mathematical bridge between Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics. This dissertation is composed of three projects. These projects represent theoretical, numerical, and experimental advances in the understanding of Eulerian diagnostics and their relationship to Lagrangian diagnostics. The first project rigorously explores the deep mathematical relationship that exists between Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. It proves that some of the new Eulerian diagnostics are the limit of Lagrangian diagnostics as integration time of the velocity field goes to zero. Using this discovery, a new Eulerian diagnostic, infinitesimal-time Lagrangian coherent structures is developed. The second project develops a methodology for estimating local Eulerian diagnostics from wind velocity data measured by a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft system (UAS) flying in circular arcs. Using a simulation environment, it is shown that the Eulerian diagnostic estimates from UAS measurements approximate the true local Eulerian diagnostics and can predict the passage of Lagrangian diagnostics. The third project applies Eulerian diagnostics to experimental data of atmospheric wind measurements. These are then compared to Eulerian diagnostics as calculated from a numerical weather simulation to look for indications of Lagrangian diagnostics.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectLagrangian coherent structuresen_US
dc.subjectgeophysical fluid mechanicsen_US
dc.subjectdynamical systemsen_US
dc.titleExperimental and Theoretical Developments in the Application of Lagrangian Coherent Structures to Geophysical Transporten_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentEngineering Science and Mechanicsen_US
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEngineering Mechanicsen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairRoss, Shane Daviden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSchmale, David Garner Burtonen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberIliescu, Traianen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberForoutan, Hoseinen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWoolsey, Craig A.en_US
dc.description.abstractgeneralHow particles are moved by fluid flows, such as the oceanic currents and the atmospheric winds, is a problem with important implications for fields as diverse as: agriculture, aviation, human health, disaster response, and weather forecasting. Because these fluid flows tend to change over time, predicting how particles will be moved by these flows can often be challenging. Fortunately, mathematical tools exist which can reveal important geometric features in these flows. These geometric features can help us to visualize regions where particles are likely to come together or spread apart, as they are moved by the flow. In the past, these geometric features have been uncovered by using methods which look at the trajectories of particles in the flow. These methods are referred to as Lagrangian, in honor of the Italian mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange. Unfortunately, calculating the trajectories of particles can be a time consuming and computationally expensive process. Recently, new methods have been developed which look at how the speed of the flow changes in space. These new methods are referred to as Eulerian, in honor of the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. These new Eulerian methods are faster and less expensive to calculate, while still revealing important geometric features within the flow. Because these Eulerian methods are so new, there is still much that we do not know about them and their connection to the older Lagrangian methods. This dissertation will fill in some of this gap and provide a mathematical bridge between these two methodologies. This dissertation is composed of three projects. These projects represent theoretical, numerical, and experimental advances in the understanding of these new Eulerian methods and their relationship to the older Lagrangian methods. The first project explores the deep mathematical relationship that exists between Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostic tools. It mathematically proves that some of the new Eulerian diagnostics are the limit of Lagrangian diagnostics as the trajectory’s integration times is decreased to zero. Taking advantage of this discovery, a new Eulerian diagnostic is developed, called infinitesimal-time Lagrangian coherent structures. The second project develops a technique for estimating local Eulerian diagnostics using wind speed measures from a single fixed-wing unmanned aircraft system (UAS) flying in a circular path. Using computer simulations, we show that the Eulerian diagnostics as calculated from UAS measurements provide a reasonable estimate of the true local Eulerian diagnostics. Furthermore, we show that these Eulerian diagnostics can be used to estimate the local Lagrangian diagnostics. The third project applies these Eulerian diagnostics to real-world wind speed measurements. These results are then compared to Eulerian diagnostics that were calculated from a computer simulation to look for indications of Lagrangian diagnostics.en


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