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dc.contributor.authorCui, Xuen
dc.contributor.authorStetson, Chessen
dc.contributor.authorMontague, P. Readen
dc.contributor.authorEagleman, David M.en
dc.identifier.citationCui X, Stetson C, Montague PR, Eagleman DM (2009) Ready…Go: Amplitude of the fMRI Signal Encodes Expectation of Cue Arrival Time. PLoS Biol 7(8): e1000167. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000167en
dc.description.abstractWhat happens when the brain awaits a signal of uncertain arrival time, as when a sprinter waits for the starting pistol? And what happens just after the starting pistol fires? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have discovered a novel correlate of temporal expectations in several brain regions, most prominently in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Contrary to expectations, we found little fMRI activity during the waiting period; however, a large signal appears after the ‘‘go’’ signal, the amplitude of which reflects learned expectations about the distribution of possible waiting times. Specifically, the amplitude of the fMRI signal appears to encode a cumulative conditional probability, also known as the cumulative hazard function. The fMRI signal loses its dependence on waiting time in a ‘‘countdown’’ condition in which the arrival time of the go cue is known in advance, suggesting that the signal encodes temporal probabilities rather than simply elapsed time. The dependence of the signal on temporal expectation is present in ‘‘no-go’’ conditions, demonstrating that the effect is not a consequence of motor output. Finally, the encoding is not dependent on modality, operating in the same manner with auditory or visual signals. This finding extends our understanding of the relationship between temporal expectancy and measurable neural signals.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) RO1 grant NS053960 (DME), as well as National Institute on Drug Abuse R01 grant DA11723, the Kane Family Foundation and NINDS grant NS045790 (PRM), and the Sloan-Swartz Foundation (CS). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en
dc.format.extent11 pagesen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.titleReady…Go: Amplitude of the fMRI Signal Encodes Expectation of Cue Arrival Timeen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.title.serialPLOS Biologyen

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International