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dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, Mary Morganen
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-12T08:00:52Zen
dc.date.available2019-06-12T08:00:52Zen
dc.date.issued2019-06-11en
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:20477en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/89928en
dc.description.abstractWater scarcity has quickly become one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. Knowledge of the stress consumption places on water supply is therefore necessary for improved resource management. This research leverages monthly facility level withdrawal and discharge data from two different sources to provide important observations of consumptive water use across several spatial scales and water use sectors in Virginia between 2010-2016. Consumptive water is defined as water which is withdrawn and not returned to a water resource system. Consumption was estimated on statewide, watershed, county, and facility levels. The agriculture/irrigation, aquaculture, commercial, industrial, energy, and municipal sectors were considered for analysis. Facilities were matched between the two data sources by narrowing potential matches by distance and then by facility name using an approximate string distance mechanism. This analysis revealed that inconsistent discharge reporting affects estimates of consumption through time and any errors at finer spatial scales are ultimately masked at coarser levels. Statewide energy consumption in Virginia was found to be between 4-20% considering all available data and 0.4-4% across matched facilities. Non-energy consumption was an estimated 37-51% considering all available data and only 28-33% across matched facilities. Inconsistent reporting of discharge made it difficult to determine if consumption trends truly exist in Virginia, but monthly consumption appears to be persistent through time and slightly increasing in non-energy sectors. Industrial consumption in Virginia was also found to be higher than literature values. Results from this study are beneficial for water supply modeling and planning by providing more refined estimates of the actual stress withdrawals place on water supply.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Geological Survey under Cooperative Agreement No. G17AC00322. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the opinions or policies of the U.S. Geological Survey. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectConsumptionen
dc.subjectWater Useen
dc.subjectWater Supplyen
dc.subjectWithdrawalen
dc.subjectDischargeen
dc.titleConsumptive Water Use: Refining State Water Supply Estimates with Discharge and Withdrawal Dataen
dc.typeThesisen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological Systems Engineeringen
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen
thesis.degree.levelmastersen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplineBiological Systems Engineeringen
dc.contributor.committeechairShortridge, Julieen
dc.contributor.committeememberScott, Durelle T.en
dc.contributor.committeememberBurgholzer, Robert Williamen
dc.description.abstractgeneralWater scarcity has quickly become one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. Improved water resource management is critical for sustainable development, especially in historically water-rich states that have not had an urgency to improve water planning. This research provides key information about the impact consumption has on water supply in Virginia, using water use data from two different sources between 2010-2016. Consumptive water is defined as water which is withdrawn and not returned to a water resource system. This includes losses through evaporation, transpiration, conveyance, and incorporation into products and animals. Consumption was estimated on statewide, watershed, county, and facility levels. It was also estimated for the agriculture/irrigation, aquaculture, commercial, industrial, energy, and municipal sectors. Facilities were matched across the two data sources by narrowing potential matches by distance and then by facility name. This study revealed that statewide energy consumption in Virginia is between 4-20% considering all available data and 0.4-4% across matched facilities. Non-energy consumption is then between 37- 51% considering all available data and only 28-33% across matched facilities. Inconsistent reporting of return flow data made it difficult to determine if consumption trends truly exist in Virginia, but consumption appears to be persistent through time and slightly increasing in non-energy sectors. Results also suggest that industrial consumption in Virginia may be higher than published literature values. This study ultimately introduces a feasible method for water managers to estimate consumption using data from multiple sources. Results from this approach are beneficial for predicting future water demand and long-term resource planning by providing more knowledge of the actual stress withdrawals place on water supply.en


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