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Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward
In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of ...
Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers
Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. ...