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dc.contributor.authorPrussin, Aaron J., IIen
dc.contributor.authorSchwake, David Ottoen
dc.contributor.authorMarr, Linsey C.en
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-20T14:36:59Z
dc.date.available2019-09-20T14:36:59Z
dc.date.issued2017-10en
dc.identifier.issn0360-1323en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/93944
dc.description.abstractLegionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher. Although there have been decades of research related to Legionella transmission, many knowledge gaps remain. While conventional wisdom suggests that showering is an important source of exposure in buildings, existing measurements do not provide strong support for this idea. There has been limited research on the potential for Legionella transmission through heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Epidemiological data suggest a large proportion of legionellosis cases go unreported, as most people who are infected do not seek medical attention. Additionally, controlled laboratory studies examining water-to-air transfer and source tracking are still needed. Herein, we discuss ten questions that spotlight current knowledge about Legionella transmission in the built environment, engineering controls that might prevent future disease outbreaks, and future research that is needed to advance understanding of transmission and control of legionellosis. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (NIH) [1-DP2-A1112243]; Virginia Tech's Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Scienceen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
dc.subjectLegionellaen
dc.subjectLegionellosisen
dc.subjectBioaerosolen
dc.subjectBuilt environmenten
dc.subjectSource trackingen
dc.titleTen questions concerning the aerosolization and transmission of Legionella in the built environmenten
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.description.notesThis work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the NIH Director's New Innovator Award Program (1-DP2-A1112243) and by Virginia Tech's Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science.en
dc.title.serialBuilding And Environmenten
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.06.024en
dc.identifier.volume123en
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImageen
dc.identifier.pmid29104349en
dc.identifier.eissn1873-684Xen


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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International