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dc.contributor.authorTang, Qingen
dc.contributor.authorWan, Binen
dc.contributor.authorYuan, Xunlaien
dc.contributor.authorMuscente, A. D.en
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Shuhaien
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-20T15:32:38Z
dc.date.available2019-11-20T15:32:38Z
dc.date.issued2019-07-26en
dc.identifier.other3348en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/95820
dc.description.abstractMost sponges have biomineralized spicules. Molecular clocks indicate sponge classes diverged in the Cryogenian, but the oldest spicules are Cambrian in age. Therefore, sponges either evolved spiculogenesis long after their divergences or Precambrian spicules were not amenable to fossilization. The former hypothesis predicts independent origins of spicules among sponge classes and presence of transitional forms with weakly biomineralized spicules, but this prediction has not been tested using paleontological data. Here, we report an early Cambrian sponge that, like several other early Paleozoic sponges, had weakly biomineralized and hexactine-based siliceous spicules with large axial filaments and high organic proportions. This material, along with Ediacaran microfossils containing putative non-biomineralized axial filaments, suggests that Precambrian sponges may have had weakly biomineralized spicules or lacked them altogether, hence their poor record. This work provides a new search image for Precambrian sponge fossils, which are critical to resolving the origin of sponge spiculogenesis and biomineralization.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [EAR 1528553]; State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology [193126]; National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNational Natural Science Foundation of China [41130209]; Chinese Academy of SciencesChinese Academy of Sciences [QYZDJ-SSW-DQC009, XDB26000000]; Jiangsu Provincial Department of Science and Technology [BK20161615]en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.titleSpiculogenesis and biomineralization in early sponge animalsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.description.notesWe thank J. Wang, Dr. S.K. Pandey, and Y. Shao for field assistance, and Dr. H. Tang for assistance in light photography. This research was supported by National Science Foundation (EAR 1528553), State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (193126), National Natural Science Foundation of China (41130209), Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJ-SSW-DQC009, XDB26000000), and Jiangsu Provincial Department of Science and Technology (BK20161615).en
dc.title.serialNature Communicationsen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11297-4en
dc.identifier.volume10en
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImageen
dc.identifier.pmid31350398en
dc.identifier.eissn2041-1723en


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