Optimal Charging Scheduling for Electric Vehicles Based on a Moving Horizon Approach
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The rapid escalation in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and their uncoordinated charging patterns pose several challenges in distribution system operation. Some of the undesirable effects include overloading of transformers, rapid voltage fluctuations, and over/under voltages. While this compromises the consumer power quality, it also puts on extra stress on the local voltage control devices. These challenges demand a well-coordinated and power network-aware charging approach for PEVs in a community. This paper formulates a realtime electric vehicle charging scheduling problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). The problem is to be solved by an aggregator that provides charging services in a residential community. The proposed formulation maximizes the profit of the aggregator, enhancing the utilization of available infrastructure. With prior knowledge of load demand and hourly electricity prices, the algorithm uses a moving time horizon optimization approach, allowing an unknown number of arriving vehicles. In this realistic setting, the proposed framework ensures that power system constraints are satisfied and guarantees the desired PEV charging level within the stipulated time. Numerical tests on an IEEE 13-node feeder system demonstrate the computational and performance superiority of the proposed MILP technique.
General Audience Abstract
There is an enhanced rate of global warming due to emissions and increased usage of fossil fuels in the transportation sector. As a feasible solution, electrification of transportation has become a necessary step towards an environment-friendly future. The escalation in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has increased the impact on loading and voltage fluctuations in the distribution grid due to uncoordinated charging. This puts on extra stress on the grid system and compromises the system performance. As a measure to control the vehicle charging in a residential setup, a real-time optimal charging scheduling algorithm is developed which is implemented at the neighborhood level. To increase the charging performance with the limited available resources, an aggregator is introduced. The charging profit is maximized as the PEV charging problem is solved optimally by the aggregator. This facilitates the reduction in night-time grid congestion and maximization of number of PEVs getting charged with limited dependency on communication to avoid long delays in charging control. The proposed technique guarantees the complete charging of the selected PEVs in the stipulated time while considering the power grid operational constraints. It also reduces the impact of peak load demand by flattening the base load demand curve. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed mixed integer linear programming optimization algorithm, numerical tests for an IEEE 13 node feeder are performed. The results are discussed to give an outlook on the balance between system and user requirements by meeting the demand of the PEV users.
- Masters Theses