Case study on the use of intensive pediatric neurorehabilitation in the treatment of kernicterus
Wallace, Dory A.
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Background Kernicterus Spectrum Disorder (KSD) is the result of prolonged bilirubin toxicity resulting in widespread neurological injury. Once the bilirubin levels are normalized the encephalopathy becomes static, however the consequences of the injury can have life-long effects. The sequelae of KSD include motor impairments, auditory deficits, dental dysplasia, and potentially cognitive impairments. While KSD is a rare diagnosis, particularly in developed countries, there is evidence that there may be a global increase in incidence (Hansen, Semin Neonatol 7:103–9, 2002; Johnson, J Perinatol 29:S25–45, 2009; Kaplan etal. Neonatology 100:354–62, 2011; Maisels, Early Hum Dev 85:727–32, 2009; Olusanya etal., Arch Dis Child 99:1117–21, 2014; Steffensrud, Newborn Infant Nurs Rev 4:191–200, 2004). The literature on the treatment of various specific sequelae of KSD is varied, but in general specific therapeutic efforts to improve motor skills are not evidenced-based. The following is a case report on the use of Acquire therapy, an intensive neuromotor intervention, to ameliorate some of the motor-function deficits secondary to KSD. Case presentation This case-report presents the results of two intensive therapeutic intervention sessions in one male child with KSD. Treatments occurred at 28 and 34 months. The child presented with fine and gross motor deficits as well as communication delays. Each session consisted of daily therapy for 4 h each weekday for 3 weeks. The child was assessed before and after treatment with 2 standardized measures, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley). Conclusions The GMFM at the 1st assessment was 34, 74at the 2nd assessment (after intervention 1), and 64 at the third assessment and 104 at the 4th assessment (after intervention 2). The Bayley at the 3rd assessment was 18, and 38 at the 4th assessment (after intervention 2).