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Translating Translation to Mechanisms of Cardiac Hypertrophy
Cardiac hypertrophy in response to chronic pathological stress is a common feature occurring with many forms of heart disease. This pathological hypertrophic growth increases the risk for arrhythmias and subsequent heart failure. While several factors promoting cardiac hypertrophy are known, the molecular mechanisms governing the progression to heart failure are incompletely understood. Recent studies on altered translational regulation during pathological cardiac hypertrophy are contributing to our understanding of disease progression. In this brief review, we describe how the translational machinery is modulated for enhanced global and transcript selective protein synthesis, and how alternative modes of translation contribute to the disease state. Attempts at controlling translational output through targeting of mTOR and its regulatory components are detailed, as well as recently emerging targets for pre-clinical investigation.