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Cytoskeletal Disruption after Electroporation and Its Significance to Pulsed Electric Field Therapies
Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) have become clinically important through the success of Irreversible Electroporation (IRE), Electrochemotherapy (ECT), and nanosecond PEFs (nsPEFs) for the treatment of tumors. PEFs increase the permeability of cell membranes, a phenomenon known as electroporation. In addition to well-known membrane effects, PEFs can cause profound cytoskeletal disruption. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of cytoskeletal disruption after PEFs. Compiling available studies, we describe PEF-induced cytoskeletal disruption and possible mechanisms of disruption. Additionally, we consider how cytoskeletal alterations contribute to cell–cell and cell–substrate disruption. We conclude with a discussion of cytoskeletal disruption-induced anti-vascular effects of PEFs and consider how a better understanding of cytoskeletal disruption after PEFs may lead to more effective therapies.