I/O Schedulers for Proportionality and Stability on Flash-Based SSDs in Multi-Tenant Environments
Noh, Sam H.
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The use of flash based Solid State Drives (SSDs) has expanded rapidly into the cloud computing environment. In cloud computing, ensuring the service level objective (SLO) of each server is the major criterion in designing a system. In particular, eliminating performance interference among virtual machines (VMs) on shared storage is a key challenge. However, studies on SSD performance to guarantee SLO in such environments are limited. In this paper, we present analysis of I/O behavior for a shared SSD as storage in terms of proportionality and stability. We show that performance SLOs of SSD based storage systems being shared by VMs or tasks are not satisfactory. We present and analyze the reasons behind the unexpected behavior through examining the components of SSDs such as channels, DRAM buffer, and Native Command Queuing (NCQ). We introduce two novel SSD-aware host level I/O schedulers on Linux, called A & x002B;CFQ and H & x002B;BFQ, based on our analysis and findings. Through experiments on Linux, we analyze I/O proportionality and stability in multi-tenant environments. In addition, through experiments using real workloads, we analyze the performance interference between workloads on a shared SSD. We then show that the proposed I/O schedulers almost eliminate the interference effect seen in CFQ and BFQ, while still providing I/O proportionality and stability for various I/O weighted scenarios.