Phylogeny, histological observation, and in vitro fungicide screening and field trials of multiple Colletotrichum species, the causal agents of grape ripe rot
Oliver, Charlotte Leigh
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Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides are fungal plant pathogens that have a global distribution, extensive host range, and convoluted taxonomy. Both species can cause grape ripe rot and are considered endemic to Virginia US. In 2012, C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides were reclassified into species complexes that consist of 31 and 22 accepted species, respectively. The objectives of this study were to: 1) survey Virginia vineyards for grape ripe rot, and morphologically and phylogenetically identify isolates to the species within the complexes, 2) conduct an in vitro fungicide assay to screen fifteen commercial fungicides and combinations of two fungicides for efficacy to control isolates from seven Colletotrichum species from Virginia vineyards, 3) sequence gene fragments from three subunits of the SDH enzyme in the fungicide-screened isolates to observe potential resistance mutations, 4) investigate the susceptibility of three grapevine tissues to Colletotrichum species, 5) observe potential infection structures before and after the application of fungicides, 6) evaluate the efficacy of commercial fungicide controls of grape ripe rot in the field, and determine the most advantageous timing of applications. In my studies, I identified six Colletotrichum species: C. aenigma, C. conoides, C. fioriniae, C. gloeosporioides� C. kahawae, and C. nymphaeae. I also found two additional groups; an isolate similar to C. limetticola and C. melonis and a group of isolates that are similar to C. alienum, C. fructicola, and C. nupharicola. I also identified captan, and mancozeb as two potential active ingredients for control of grape ripe rot isolates from Virginia via the in vitro fungicide assay. Additionally, I found that combinations of two active ingredients could increase the efficacy of benzovindiflupyr, copper, and polyoxin-D. C. fioriniae germination and production of melanized appressoria was documented on leaves. I observed appressorium formation with isolates of two C. fructicola-like genotypes and C. nymphaeae, as well as secondary conidiation with isolates of C. aenigma, C. fructicola-like genotype 3, and C. nymphaeae on blooms. And finally, benzovindiflupyr, cyprodinil + fludioxonil pre-mix, and potassium phosphite + tebuconazole were identified as candidates for chemical control for grape ripe rot in the field.
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