Comparison of direct measurement of intracranial pressures and presumptive clinical and magnetic resonance imaging indicators of intracranial hypertension in dogs with brain tumors
Rossmeisl, John H.
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Background Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is often presumptively diagnosed based on clinical or imaging findings. Clinical or imaging surrogates of ICH are not usually validated with reference standard direct intracranial pressure (dICP) recordings. Hypotheses Dogs with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or clinical features of presumed ICH would have higher dICP than dogs lacking those features. Animals Twenty dogs with gliomas and 3 normal controls. Methods Prospective, convenience study. Dogs were presumptively categorized with normal ICP or ICH from scores generated from described clinical and brain MRI indicators of ICH. dICP was recorded in anesthetized dogs using an intraparenchymal microsensor and compared between groups. Results dICP was not different between control (10.4 +/- 2.1 mm Hg) and dogs with glioma (15.6 +/- 8.3 mm Hg), or between dogs in clinically predicted ICP groups. Compared with dogs with MRI-predicted normal ICP, MRI-predicted ICH dogs had higher dICP (10.3 +/- 4.1 versus 19.2 +/- 7.9 mm Hg, P = .004), larger tumors (1.45 +/- 1.2 versus 5.71 +/- 3.03 cm(3), P = .0004), larger optic nerve sheath diameters, and 14/14 (100%) displayed structural anatomical shifts on MRI. At a dICP threshold of 15 mm Hg, the sensitivity of MRI for predicting ICH was 90% and the specificity 69%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance dICP measurements are feasible in dogs with brain tumors. MRI features including brain herniations, mass effect, and optic nerve size aid in the identification of dogs with ICH. Clinical estimation of ICP did not discriminate between dogs with and without ICH.