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dc.contributor.authorHarvey, Samuel Vernonen_US
dc.date.accessioned2011-08-06T16:01:46Z
dc.date.available2011-08-06T16:01:46Z
dc.date.issued2004-04-28en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-06092004-173945en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/9980
dc.description.abstractAnomalously high groundwater salinities exist within the syn-impact sediment of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, including an unexplained brine. This brine may be the result of phase-separation of seawater that occurred within the syn-impact sediments as underlying deformed and possibly melted basement rock cooled following impact. The 85 km wide crater has been described as a complex peak-ring crater; created 35.8 million years ago in the then submerged unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and now completely buried by post-impact sediments. An annular trough with relatively undisturbed basement surrounds a ~38 km diameter inner basin with a peak ring and central uplift. The basement surface within the inner basin was modified by the impact and is projected to be approximately 1.6 km below sea level. Geothermometry and advective and conductive heat flow modeling was performed to characterize a possible post-impact hydrothermal system. Thermal maturity and radiogenic techniques were used to estimate the temperature history of the crater sediments. Core samples from one borehole just outside the crater, two within the annular trough, and one shallow borehole within the inner basin were examined. Numerical heat and fluid flow models were developed using a range of likely sediment parameters and basal heat flow values to determine if phase-separation temperatures were likely to have occurred, and to evaluate what affect, if any, lithostatic overpressures may have had on post-impact cooling. Geothermometry results indicate that no detectable thermal anomaly exists within the syn or post-impact sediments at these boreholes; however, no data are available within the deep inner basin where temperatures were likely to have been higher. Samples from existing boreholes suggest that sediment are organically immature and likely were never heated above ~40°C for a geologically significant period of time. These results support apatite He (U/Th) and previously published apatite fission track radiogenic ages indicating no Cenozoic resetting. Heat flow simulations indicate that a high temperature (>400°C) hydrothermal system could have existed within the inner basin and not caused any measurable effect on thermal maturity in the annular trough and shallow portion of the inner basin. Results also indicate that phase-separation could have occurred in the syn-impact sediments using reasonable estimates of basal heat flow, permeability, thermal conductivity, and porosity values, and that overpressures resulting from rapid deposition of syn-impact sediments dissipate within a few thousand years and are not an important heat transport mechanism.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartsvharvey.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectImpact Crateren_US
dc.subjectThermal Maturityen_US
dc.subjectVitrinite Reflectanceen_US
dc.subjectPhase-separationen_US
dc.subjectBrineen_US
dc.titleThermal History of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crateren_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentGeosciencesen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGeosciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairBurbey, Thomas J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSchreiber, Madeline E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRead, James Fredricken_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-06092004-173945en_US
dc.date.sdate2004-06-09en_US
dc.date.rdate2004-06-30
dc.date.adate2004-06-30en_US


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