The effects of perceptual type and presentation mode in a visual location task
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptual type (Haptic and Visual) and presentation mode (multiple and linear imagery) in a visual location task. Specifically, the purpose was to answer the questions:
- Is there a difference between Visuals and Haptics in a visual location task?
- Is there a difference between multiple and linear imagery in a visual location task?
- Is there an interaction between perceptual type and presentation mode in a visual location?
- Is there a difference in the scores made by Haptics with multiple and linear imagery?
- Is there a difference in the scores made by Visuals with multiple and linear imagery?
- Is there a difference in the scores made by Visuals and Haptics with multiple imagery?
- Is there a difference in the scores made by Visuals and Haptics with linear imagery?
The perceptual type of two hundred (200) community college students was determined through two tests developed by Lowenfeld. Students who were classified as Visual on both tests were designated Visual; students who were classified Haptic on both tests were designated Haptic. Forty (40) Haptics and forty (40) Visuals were selected and randomly assigned to treatment groups. Two groups each of twenty (20) Haptics and twenty (20) Visuals received the linear image presentation; two groups each of twenty (20) Visuals and twenty (20) Haptics viewed the multiple image presentation.
The visual task in this study required subjects to view three black and white 35 mm slides which represented three quadrants of a criterion picture. Subjects were to select the criterion picture when they were shown three similar pictures. In the linear presentation, students was three quadrants of the criterion picture one at a time projected by a single carousel projector. In the multiple image presentation, students saw the three quadrants of the criterion picture at the same time, projected simultaneously by three separate carousel projectors. There were twenty (20) items on the test, which was developed by the experimenter from a series of art prints. A series of questions concerning the technique utilized by students to remember visual detail was administered following the treatment. A 2 X 2 factorial analysis of variance was used to analyze the data at the .05 and the .01 significance levels.
The results of the analysis of data indicated that there was an interaction between presentation and perceptual type in a visual location task. Examination of the interaction indicated that the difference between multiple and linear imagery was significant for Haptics. Haptics tended to score higher with a multiple image presentation than with a linear image presentation. There was no difference in presentation mode for Visuals; Visuals tended to score the same in the linear image presentation as in the multiple image presentation.
Other analyses indicated that there was a difference in the obtained perceptual types and the theoretical distribution described by Lowenfeld and others. It was concluded that community college students constituted a different population than the greater population, with more than the expected number of Haptics and fewer Visuals. Therefore it was suggested that instructional designers, instructors, and administrators consider the perceptual type of students when designing and implementing instruction. Multiple imagery may be the crucial factor in facilitating the learning process for Haptics.